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Illinois Coal & Coal Mining
History & Genealogy

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August 1932
Events in Illinois & Indiana

as related in newspaper articles
$6.10 was the minimum daily wage scale on the contract that expired on March 31, 1932.
Now it is to be reduced to $5.00 a day minimum by the proposed new wage scale contract.
Battle of Mulkeytown ~ August 24 & 25, 1932
August of 1932 Was the Prelude of Several Years of "Mine Wars"
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 278
Tuesday, August 2, 1932, Page 1
Idle Indiana Mine Again Hoists Coal; Draws New Pickets
      TERRE HAUTE, Ind., Aug. 1. --(AP) -- The Dixie Bee mine, idle for three days last week when union miners picketed the shaft and prevented workers from entering, hoisted coal again today and drew a large number of pickets to the place.
      However, when the mine shut down this afternoon Sheriff Joe Dreher and a force of deputies succeeded in bringing out the men and taking some of the night force into the mine.
      The pickets had backed a truck across the road to the mine. The sheriff persuaded them to remove the truck and there was no violence.
      Governor Harry G. Leslie indicated at Indianapolis today that only upon a specific request from local officials will Indiana national guard troops be sent into the coal mining district.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 278
Tuesday, August 2, 1932, Page 2
      Benton. Aug. 1. --(AP) -- Plans were made here tonight at a meeting of citizens and miners to prevent any disturbances at the Franklin county miners fair tomorrow when John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers of America, appears to discuss the new wage scale agreement reached in Springfield last week by union representatives and mine operators.
Pledge Support
      Radical elements among the coal miners of this section were assailed by speakers at tonight's meeting and approximately 400 citizens and miners pledged their support to Sheriff Browning Robinson of Franklin county, in maintaining peace at tomorrow's gathering. Sheriff Robinson, one of the speakers, said the United Mine Workers of America would be doomed if radical organizations were allowed to continue their work in the coal fields. Sheriff Robinson called another meeting for tomorrow morning to make further plans to assure a peaceful gathering at the miners fair in the afternoon.
Mostly Foreigners
      Ray Edmundson, president of subdistrict No. 9 of the United Mine Workers, also assailed radical elements among the miners and said they were composed chiefly of foreigners. It is time, Edmundson said, for us to declare our independence as American citizens and stand up for our rights. We stand for free speech and free assembly and this is assured President Lewis tomorrow.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 278
Tuesday, August 2, 1932, Page 3
3 Peace Officers Keep Miners From Holding Meeting
      JOHNSTON CITY, Aug. 1 --(AP)-- Acting to prevent a repetition of Saturday's disorder, three peace officers in this vicinity, aided by between 100 and 150 citizens, kept a group of unemployed coal miners from holding a scheduled meeting here this afternoon.
      Sheriff G. J. Frick of Williamson county and Deputy Sheriff Stanley Mundell of Franklin county, stationing themselves on the county line between here and West Frankfort, turned back several carloads of men from the latter city on their way to attend the meeting.
      In Johnston City, Police Chief Hezzie Byrn and the citizens patrolled the streets to keep any of the organizers from holding the gathering.
      A discussion of the proposed wage scale for coal miners was to have been held at the meeting.
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Second Proposed Wage Scale Will Be at Stake in Ballot
      SPRINGFIELD, Aug. 1. --(AP) --Voting on the second proposed wage agreement reached last week between Illinois union miners and the Illinois Coal Operators association will be held Saturday, according to a statement issued from district 12 headquarters in this city yesterday. Ballots and circular letters defining the method to be adhered to in voting have been sent to all locals in the state by District Secretary-Treasurer Walter Nesbit.
      District President John H. Walker, International President John L. Lewis and other union leaders will spend the remainder of the week in talking in various towns throughout the state in favor of the agreement. President Walker talked tonight at Nokomis before a large group of miners.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 183,
Tuesday, August 2, 1932, Page 1
      Nokomis, Ill., Aug. 2. --(UP)-- Addressing approximately 400 miners here last night, John H. Walker, president of the Illinois district mine union, urged adoption of the $5 a day basic wage proposal which is to be submitted to a referendum vote Saturday.
      Walker declared that the agreement was the best that could be obtained from the operators because of economic conditions. He urged the men not to be ruled by "mob spirit" but to get all the information they could concerning conditions and the new agreement.
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(United Press)
      Illinois mine union leaders, seeking they say, to save the livelihood of Illinois miners and the state coal industry itself from collapsing under a cost which would prevent them from competing with other coal producing states opened an "educational" drive among diggers today to gain their approval of a proposed $5 day basic wage scale agreement, which will be voted on next Saturday.
      Declaring that rejection of the agreement would mean a spread of non-unionism in the industry, John H. Walker, president of the Illinois district union, appealed to miners in a statement at Springfield to approve the agreement. Later in the day he addressed a mass meeting of Christian county miners at Taylorvllle.
      John H. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers of America, in a statement at Indianapolis, declared the proposed scale represents "every concession that can be wrung from impoverished local operators" and urged its adoption.
      Lewis also carried the campaign directly to the miners by addressing a large mass meeting of Franklin county miners at Benton this afternoon.
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Lewis Urges Acceptance
      Indianapolis, Aug. 2. --(UP)-- Acceptance of the $5 a day basic wage for the Illinois field, district No. 12, United Mine Workers of America, as one representing "every concession that can he wrung from the impoverished coal companies in a stricken and almost expiring industry," was recommended in a statement given here today by John L. Lewis, International president or the U. M. W. of A.
      The revised report , bearing slight concessions in operating conditions, but none in basic or other pay, will be the subject of a referendum vote in the district Aug. 6.
      "The president of the U. M. W. of A. recommends the acceptance of this agreement by the membership of district 12," the report continues, "for the overpowering reason that no better agreement can be obtained under present conditions and that it is beyond the realm of human probability to expect that a continuance of the existing strike, with its attendant horrors of hunger, malnutrition, illness community bankruptcy, deprivation of opportunity and mental depression will, in any way, exercise control of the economic and commercial factors which inexorable determine the wages which coal companies in Illinois can pay and continue to exist.
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Stand at Cross Roads
      "It is the mature opinion of the undersigned that the mine workers of Illinois are standing at the crossroads of their economic destiny. If they elect to do so they can vote to accept this agreement as being the best obtainable under existing conditions and thereby preserve their union and enable themselves to live until conditions improve and their wage losses are regained.
      "On the other hand, the mine workers of Illinois, in the referendum, can elect to reject the agreement and thereby strike down and destroy every vestige of collective bargaining in the coal industry of the state and begin economic adventure which will dissolve their union and make of themselves helpless individuals, without economic status or influence."
      Lewis concludes with a warning that if the union is destroyed wages "will not be $5 upon the basing inside day rates, but inevitably will be lower."
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 279
Wednesday, August 3, 1932, Page 1
      TERRE HAUTE, Ind., Aug. 2. --(AP)-- One man was killed and seven injured late today as about 60 non-union workmen engaged in a gun battle with nearly a thousand union pickets who besieged the Dixie Bee Coal mine south of here.
      The dead man was Taylor Kellar, 24, of Linton, Ind., who died from a bullet wound in the head while being taken to a Sullivan, Ind., hospital.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 279
Wednesday, August 3, 1932, Page 2
Illinois President of United Mine Workers Says Approval Will Save Union
      TAYLORVILLE , Aug. 2. --(AP)-- John H. Walker, Illinois president of the United Mine Workers, urged miners at a meeting here today to ratify the $5 basic scale proposal in Saturday's referendum , and "save the miners' union in Illinois from destruction."
      The meeting, attended by approximately 1,000 miners, was peaceful and Walker was applauded when he completed his speech, contrasting with the attitude of a majority of miners attending a meeting at which Walker spoke last night at Nokomis.
Would Inflict Calamity
      Defeat of the wage proposal Walker said, would inflict calamity on miners of the state, as well as their families and others, he told the miners they were not voting Saturday to decide whether they approved the proposed wage scale, but whether they were willing to accept the best terms they could get at the present. Rejection of the proposal, he warned, would cause a breakdown of the Illinois miners' union organization such as has occurred in southern Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia, and other states producing coal in competition with Illinois.
Higher Purchasing Power
      The proposed wage scale, Walker said, represents a purchasing power of $8.50 compared with price levels of 1922, when the Jacksonville agreement was negotiated at a basic wage of $7.50 a day. Insistence on a higher wage, he said, would only result in further depressing the Illinois coal industry and cause additional mines to be closed.
      "Consult your conscience and then vote for what you think is right," Walker urged.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 279
Wednesday, August 3, 1932, Page 3
Union Men Advised to Accept Proposed Scale Lest Operators Run Mines Without Them
      BENTON, Aug. 2. --(AP)-- Illinois miners attended a mass meeting at the Franklin county fair grounds today heard a warning from John L. Lewis, international president of the United Mine Workers, that unless the miners ratify the $5 basic wage proposal approved by the state policy committee the operators "might run the mines without you."
      The meeting was attended by approximately 10,000 miners.
      Lewis charged that opposition to the proposal was inspired by Communists.
      "This thing of foreign speaking men rushing from town to town disrupting the law must stop," he said. "It goes without saying, there are Communists in Southern Illinois who have been going into towns at night and uttering opposition to every creed of Americanism and are attempting to destroy the United Mine Workers union."
'Best Wage Obtainable'
      Lewis pleaded with the diggers to accept the new contract in Saturday's referendum, contending the wage was the best obtainable.
      "In my opinion," he said, "the Illinois coal industry cannot pay any more wages than set forth in this contract and run their mines. Operators say this scale represents dollar they can possibly pay.
      "You have a chance now to approve this tentative agreement and regain losses. If you abandon it you pave the way for complete destruction of the miners union in Illinois."
      Despite early indications of opposition demonstrations at the meeting, the miners were orderly. Not a boo was sounded against the international president As a safeguard against disorders, however, 300 special deputies and 40 state highway police patrolled the fair grounds.
Rain Disturbs Lewis
      When Lewis arrived, a loud demonstration of welcome greeted him as he mounted the speakers platform.
      A heavy rainfall disrupted the speaker for a time and drenched about 1,000 miners unable to gain shelter under the grandstand.
      Mine officials believe the key to a favorable vote on the wage contract lies in the attitude taken by the Southern Illinois miners and are conducting an educational program in Southern Illinois outlining points in the new contract.
      John H. Walker, president of the Illinois Mine Workers is scheduled to speak at Johnston City tomorrow. The Illinois president was stoned when he attempted to speak there last week.
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      TERRE HAUTE, Ind., Aug. 2. --(AP)-- Shots were exchanged late today between workmen and union pickets at the Dixie Bee mine in southern Vigo county, where about 60 miners at the pit mouth were surrounded by pickets estimated to number 600.
      Two deputy sheriffs who reported the firing, said none of the mine workmen was injured and they believed no picket was hit by approximately 200 shots fired.
      Sheriff Joe Dreher and Prosecutor Charles C. Whitlock went to the mine late this afternoon.
      Telephone lines to the mine either were cut by pickets or thrown out of order by a thunderstorm which broke this afternoon and officers of the company here were unable to establish communication with the shaft.
      Pickets at one time were said to have numbered 4,000 but were considerably thinned by the storm.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 184
Wednesday, August 3, 1932, Page 1
Terra Haute Authorities Helpless as Armed Mob; Lays Siege.
      Indianapolis, Aug. 3. --(UP)-- Gov. Harry G. Leslie ordered Indiana national guardsmen to the mine trouble zone at the Dixie Bee mine near Terre Haute shortly afternoon today.
      Marching orders for 1000 guardsmen from companies thruout the state were issued for 12:45 p. m. by the governor's directions.
      Adj. Gen. Paul E. Tombaugh had made arrangements for instant departure of the troops, composed of infantry and machine gun companies.
      The governor's decision, previously delayed while disorder prevailed for 15 hours., was reached after a conference of several hours with representatives of the Dixie Bee and John Templeton, president of the Indiana Coal Operators' association .
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      Terre Haute , Ind., Aug. 3. --(UP)-- War without quarter was waged today by 1000 union pickets laying siege to the Dixie Bee mine where 75 non-union workers and guards were embattled.
      Pickets turned back P. J. Ryan , undertaker, Coroner John O. Garrigus and a deputy when they sought to reach four wounded men in the mine.
      Sheriff Joe Dreher came out of the mine, declaring conditions inside were "desperate.'' He was given a telegram from Maj. H. J. Drum, Fort Hays, Columbus, 0., refusing federal intervention "until such time as the state shall have exhausted its own resources."
      "It looks like the pickets aim to wipe out everybody in the mine," Dreher said. "Those inside have got plenty of ammunition and water but they have no food. They'll put up a bitter fight, but I don't know how long they can hold out."
      Firing was too brisk to ascertain whether any additional casualties had been added to the one killed and seven or eight injured yesterday.
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      Indianapolis, Aug. 3. --(UP)-- Adjutant Gen. Paul E. Tombaugh said this morning 1500 picked men were at hand here ready to move to the scene of the Dixie Bee mine disorder at a moment's notice.
      Tombaugh said Gov. Harry G. Leslie as yet had given no order for troops to be sent to the mine region. Three airplanes were in readiness to accompany the guardsmen if needed.
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      Indianapolis , Aug. 3. --(UP)-- Ralph Butler, day superintendent of the Dixie Bee mine, and Charles Moss, Terre Haute, told Gaylord Morton, secretary to Gov. Leslie, today that an appeal for federal troops had been made to restore order at the besieged mine.
      They decline to say who had made the appeal or to whom it went. It was based, they said, on the federal injunction against interference with operation of the mine.
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By STEVE RICHARDS (United Press Staff Correspondent.)
      Terre Haute, Ind.. Aug . 3. -- Gunfire crackled as the mine war, which has cost one life and at least seven wounded was resumed at the Dixie Bee mine today.
      From the encircling lines of entrenched union pickets, who outnumber the 75 non-union miners and guards about 10 to 1, came a challenging volley. Machine guns and shot guns within the low brick fanhouse, where the captive men..were fortified, roared an answering volley.
      There was a lull. But mine representatives abandoned hope for an immediate truce. They feared the strife, precipitated after disgruntled striking union men from many parts of the western Indiana coal fields had picketed the Dixie Bee for a week, would go on to a major battle.
Appeal to Governor
      Day Superintendent Ralph Butler, who has three sons in the mine , and Charlie Moss, whose son, a mine bookkeeper, is one of the defenders, took the gunfire today as an ominous sign. They left at once by automobile for Indianapolis to appeal to Gov. Leslie for troops.
      The United Press writer circled low over the battleground in an airplane after today's firing started.
      He could see the black muzzles of guns protruding from the fanhouse, and others from the tipple, where a few men were on guard.
      Some 25 pickets loitered along the road east of the mine. They were concealed from the besieged miners. Another body of 50 or 60 pickets were massed at the intersection of a railroad track and the road that runs east into the mine property. Still others were lying behind a railroad embankment, their guns trained over the top. Others were in a cornfield and still others in the underbrush of a creek.
      The pickets seemed to be changing guard, with almost military precision as the plane droned overhead.
      So far as could be learned the messengers who brought an offer of the mine owners to capitulate to the pickets' demand that work be halted in return for release of the imprisoned men had been unable to deliver the message.
Request for Troops Refused
      It was feared they had been unable to get thru the picket lines. Sheriff Joe Dreher, Jr., was on the scene with several of his men. He had given up hope of preventing further bloodshed without aid from national guard troopers. His request to Gov. Leslie for aid had been refused, the sheriff said.
      The men in the coal shaft were entirely cut off from communication. Several were known to be wounded. These were believed without medical aid except for first aid supplies on hand in the mine.
      "God only knows what will happen if the pickets try to storm the mine," the sheriff said. "The men in the shaft can hold out for some time, but I hate to think of what will happen if a general attack is made."
      Pickets surrounding the mine were determined to keep all but their own men away from the scene.
      Approaching automobiles and curiosity seekers were ordered away.
      "The roads are all closed," a picket guard said. "Better stay away from here, Buddy, unless you've got a union card."
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      Taylorville, Ill., Aug. 3. --(UP) -- Urging them to approve a proposed $5 day basic wage scale, John H. Walker, president of the Illinois district union, told Christian county miners at a mass meeting here last night that they are not voting Saturday on whether they approve the proposed wage scale, but whether they are willing to accept the best terms obtainable at the present time.
      Approximately 1000 miners attended the meeting which was conducted in an orderly manner. At the conclusion of Walker's address he was loudly applauded by the group.
      "Defeat of the wage proposal," Walker said, "will inflict calamity on miners of the state, as well as their families and others. Rejection of the proposal will cause a break down of the Illinois miners' union organization such as has occurred in southern Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia and other states producing coal In competition with Illinois.
      "The proposed scale represents a purchasing power of $8.50 compared with price levels of 1922, when the Jacksonville agreement was negotiated providing a basic wage of $7.50 a day. Insistence on a higher wage will only result in further depressing the Illinois coal industry and cause additional mines to be closed."
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 281
Friday, August 5, 1932, Page 1
Picketed Miners March Peacefully to Freedom Under Protection of Guardsmen
      TERRE HAUTE, Ind., Aug. 4. --(AP)-- Their peace restoration mission accomplished, Indiana national guard troops departed tonight for their home stations.
      Under the guns of the guardsmen sixty-five non-union miners passed peacefully early this morning from the Dixie Bee mine in which they had been besieged for two days. The army of pickets that had laid siege to the mine dispersed as the troops approached and scattered to their homes in the little mining towns that dot the district south of here.
Will Send Guards
      At the state capital Adjutant General Paul E. Tombaugh said a small force of the guardsmen will be sent to Shahamak State park, in Sullivan county. This park is near the center of the mine region and should disorder occur again the troops would be readily available to quell any disturbance.
      Officials of the Dixie Bee Coal corporation, owners of the besieged mine, declared they would resume work as soon as their employes had recuperated from the experiences of the siege. The miners apparently unintimidated, expressed a willingness to take up employment again in the shaft.
      The pickets had no spokesmen and their attitude toward the re-opening of the mine was problematical.
Wants Protection
      John Hoke Beasley, attorney for the Dixie Bee corporation, indicated that when work is resumed he hopes protection would be afforded by federal authorities.
      Federal Judge Louis Fitzhenry will hold a hearing next Monday in Indianapolis on the question of supplementing a temporary restraining order against interference with operation of the Dixie Bee shaft with a temporary injunction.
      Judge Fitzhenry has indicated also that he will take up charges of contempt that have been filed against nearly 200 union sympathizers as the result of alleged violation of his temporary restraining order. These men were arrested shortly after disturbances at the Dixie Bee and the Hoosier mine at Dugger last April.
      Two weeks ago national guard troops were sent to the Hoosier mine to lift a siege similar to the one just ended at the Dixie Bee.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 281
Friday, August 5, 1932, Page 2
Speaker Denies He is Communist; Union Members Warned Not to Surrender Without Fight
      SPRINGFIELD, Aug. 4. --(AP)-- A crowd of approximately 700 miners and towns people at a mass meeting in Reservoir park today heard leaders protest the proposed $5 rate of pay and avow that its adoption by the rank and file in Saturday's referendum would be "degrading."
      Among the speakers were Joe Goetz of Peoria, once vice president of the provisional district government set up by International President John L. Lewis; Byron Humphries, former official of the old "rank and file" movement in Illinois, Ednes Mabie of Springfield, and Mary Casper of Taylorville.
      Goetz who declared he was not a Communist told the miners the proposed contract would reduce their standard of living 27 per cent from 1929 even with an allowance for the reduction of the cost of living.
      He said the proposed contract was no better than the $5 rate of pay overwhelmingly defeated by Illinois miners in referendum just three weeks ago. Walker and Lewis, he said, were both "fallacious" in asking support of the proposed amendment.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 281
Friday, August 5, 1932, Page 3
Illinois Diggers Shape Own Destiny in Balloting Tomorrow on $5 Wage
(By the Associated Press)
      More, than 40,000 Illinois coal miners will shape their future with ballots tomorrow.
      They will vote in 240 locals of the Illinois District, United Mine Workers of America, whether to accept or reject for the second time a $5 daily minimum rate of pay.
      In their ears rang the warning of district and international officers that defeat of the referendum would spell destruction for organized mine labor in the state; and the importunities of alleged "radical" leaders that acceptance of a cut in pay would be "degrading" and reduce the living standards.
      The old rate of $6.10 expired last March 31, closing virtually all the tipples in the state. Thousands were rendered jobless, and with their families facing hunger and privation, thrown upon resources of the state for subsistence.
Feeling is High
      Feeling was high among the diggers as opposing forces made last minute bids for votes, which will be cast in strictest secrecy to forestall any undue influence. The situation was almost without parallel in the turbulent history of the Illinois coal mining industry.
      Pleading for the adoption of the contract was the new-born combine of District President John H. Walker, veteran of 30 years in the services of labor, and John L. Lewis, international president and Walker's bitter foe of yesterday. Both were hopeful but neither would venture a flat prediction as to the outcome of the vote.
      After defeat of a similar $5 proposal by the rank and file just three weeks ago, Walker and Lewis shook hands, buried their hatchet and set out on a joint campaign of education in attempting to convince the miners that the pay was "the best obtainable under existing economic conditions."
Makes Final Plea
      In a climatic drive for the miner's favor, Walker yesterday mailed every union digger of the state a circular in which he reassured that the proposed pay represented every cent that could be "wrung" from the operators and urged its adoption to avert a crisis in the coal mining industry of the state.
      Walker, once the hero of Illinois miners, was stoned by a handful of them at Johnson City last Saturday and prevented from speaking on behalf of the scale, but subsequent meetings at Nokomis, Taylorville, Johnston City, and Belleville won him applause.
      Lewis likewise was applauded by 10,000 miners and townspeople of Benton Tuesday. He will make his final plea at West Frankfort this afternoon while Walker winds up his tour in Gillespie.
Protestors Meet
      Opposing the Lewis-Walker alliance was the alleged "radical" combine of Pat Amsbury of West Frankfort, Byron Humphries of Springfield, Joseph Goett of Peoria, Mary Casper of Taylorville, and others who urged the miners to hold out for a higher rate of pay because, they said, there was no assurance that the proposed contract if adopted could be bettered upon its expiration March 31, 1933.
      The protesting miners have held numerous meetings throughout the downstate and will close their drive with a mass meeting in Canton tonight. A meeting was held last night at Benton and another yesterday at Springfield where a crowd estimated at more than 700 persons heard leaders disclaim any alleged Communist connection and urge defeat of the proposed contract.
Blame Communists
      Walker and other conservative leaders have charged that the opposition to the scale was inspired by Communists. Speaking at the Springfield mass meeting. Goett, former vice president of the provisional district government set up in Illinois by International President Lewis, asserted that such charges were made only to discredit the opposition.
      In his appeal through the circulars, Walker told the miners that a higher scale was not possible because miners in every coal field competing with Illinois worked for pay that ranged from $1.50 to $2.00 less per day.
      Twenty thousand, he said,have been out of work in Illinois last year due to economic conditions and any increase in the cost of production could only result in a general shutdown of the mines.
      A majority vote will determine the acceptance or rejection of the proposed contract.
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      DUQUOIN, Aug. 4. --(AP)-- More than 1,000 miners from Perry, Jackson, Franklin, Williamson, Randolph, Washington and other coal producing counties of southern Illinois, attended a mass meeting here today to hear advocates and opponents of the new wage scale proposal.
      There was no disorder and state police assigned to the meeting had little to do.
      International President John L. Lewis and State President John H. Walker, who had been invited to speak, did not appear. Minor union officials addressed the meeting.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 186
Friday Evening, August 5, 1932, Page 1
      Indianapolis, Aug. 5. --(UP)-- Solution of the controversy between non-union and union miners in Indiana, which has brought out state troops twice within two weeks, may be brought about thru an old and forgotten state law, unearthed today by L. O. Chasey, secretary to Gov. Harry G. Leslie.
      Under this statute, passed in 1913, either party to a controversy between employers and employes over wages, hours of work, contracts or conditions, which develops a situation "detrimental to public Interest," may appeal to the governor to appoint a board of mediation .
      This board, to consist of three men, none of whom shall have any interests related to the issue involved, would have exceedingly broad powers. It could force representatives of all sides -- in this case union and non-union miners, and operators -- to testify and produce any and all records desired. A decision of the board would be binding upon all parties to the dispute, even to the point of wages, hours, etc., as Chasey interprets the law.
      One of the most, important provisions of the law, as it pertains to the present case, is the requirement that pending the board's decision, work would continue, and under the conditions at the wage prevailing when the dispute arose. This would re-open all Indiana mines, presuming that an appeal for the board of arbitration were made, at the $6.10 basic union wage which was in effect at the expiration of the contract last March 31.
      Gov. Leslie was studying the law and it is possible it would be called to the attention of parties to the dispute in the mine area, so that either group might invoke the statute, if it so desired.
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Non-Union Miners Intimidated by Men With Rifles
      Terre Haute, Ind., Aug. 5. -- (United Press) -- Picketing miners, driven from the Dixie Bee workings by National guardsmen, were reported today to have baited non-union men en route to work in the Vermillion mine and turned them back at the point of rifles.
      The word of the new trouble came from Vern Bennett, president of the Associated miners, and Samuel Howell, secretary, who telegraphed Governor Leslie for troops.
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      West Frankfort, Ill., Aug. 5.--(UP)-- A growing sentiment favorable to the coal miners' wage agreement was apparent in Franklin county today as high union officials made their final pleas in support of the new scale, union leaders claimed today.
      The bitter resentment felt against the agreement is diminishing, but the feeling of tenseness among the miners has not disappeared on the eve of the referendum, it was claimed.
      The campaign of addresses by John L. Lewis, International vice president of the United Mine Workers of America, and John H. Walker, head of the Illinois unions, is credited with the change in the attitude of the workmen. Antagonism has risen toward groups of men in the coal fields who are accused of fomenting "red" demonstrations against the wage proposal, officials said.
      Supporters of the wage agreement pointed to the large and orderly crowds that heard addresses by Lewis in Benton and Walker in Johnston City within the last few days as evidence of the changing attitude of the men.
      Walker in a previous attempt to speak in Johnston City had been hooted from the platform.
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(United Press)
      "Big business" joined hands with union labor leaders today in advocating ratification of a proposed $5 basic day wage mine pact, to be voted on in a referendum among Illinois miners tomorrow.
      In a statement issued at St. Louis, Samuel S. Fordyce, head of the St. Louis Industrial club, recognized as the strongest business men's organization in that section, declared settlement, of the controversy is "vital to the return of prosperity in southern Illinois" and urged miners to accept the proposed scale to save their own livelihood and halt "imminent bankruptcy of many mining communities."
      In the meantime mine union leaders continued an intensive "education campaign" among miners at West Frankfort and Gillespie, to win approval for the scale.
      At the former place John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers of America, addressed a mass meeting and at the latter city John H. Walker, president of the Illinois district union, talked to miners assembled in Gillespie city park.
      In a statement issued at Springfield today where Walker defended scale provisions for hand loading mines as necessary if men employed in such mines are "to get additional work to enable them to exist."
      At a mass meeting in Springfield yesterday, opponents of the proposed scale assailed it because it would not permit them to "comply with the American standards of living." Another protest meeting was held at Benld this afternoon.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 282
Saturday, August 6, 1932, Page 1
Are Face to Face with 'Zero Hour,' Leaders State; Union Headquarters Optimistic
      SPRINGFIELD, Aug. 5. --(UP)-- Union miners of Illinois, stalked for months by unemployment, were face to face tonight with what their leaders have called the "zero hour" of the state's mining industry.
      They were ready to vote tomorrow in a referendum that will mean defeat or acceptance of a proposed $5.00 basic daily wage scale -- a scale similar to the one they themselves rejected but three weeks ago.
      The union headquarters here was optimistic. For two weeks it has been pleading with miners to vote "yes" on the scale and save the Illinois union, strongest of all bituminous coal district organizations, from destruction.
Sentiment Change
      From John H. Walker, Illinois district president, came this statement: "Reports from every section of the state show an overwhelming change of sentiment in every coal mining district toward ratification of the new tentative wage proposal."
      Last appeals of opposing factions were made tonight. They closed a bitter campaign for votes, marked by frequent disturbances. Those favoring the proposed pay pointed out its acceptance would put thousands back to work at once and greatly improve economic conditions throughout the state. Opponents expressed belief the diggers would get their old scale of $6.10 back if they held out
Favorable Effect
      The feeling prevailed among district leaders here that healing of the breach between Walker and International President John L. Lewis would have a favorable effect on the vote.
      Walker and Lewis, working once more for a common cause, pushed into hostile downstate counties and laid their pleas before the miners.
      Walker was stoned at Johnston City. Four hundred miners walked out on him at Nokomis, refusing to listen and crying "traitor." But 10,000 came to hear Lewis at Benton. Thousands applauded both Lewis and Walker in subsequent speeches and both saw occasion for cheer in that applause.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 282
Saturday, August 6, 1932, Page 2
Armed Men Stops Vermillion Mine Workers at Gate
      TERRE HAUTE, Aug., 5.--(AP)-- Workers at the Vermillion mine, northwest of here, reported today that they were prevented from reaching the mine by an armed group of at least 100 men.
      The fireman and a few miners went to the mine and reported that they were turned back at the gate. The main body of miners had assembled at Clinton and did not go to the mine after the report of the armed pickets.
      The Dixie Bee mine, scene of a violent siege by pickets for two days in which one man was killed and eight wounded, has not attempted to reopen pending recovery of the employes from their experience during the siege.
      Approximately 10,000 persons attended funeral services at Linton today for Taylor Keller, 23, of Linton, fatally shot while picketing the Dixie Bee mine.
      Services were conducted in the city park to accommodate the huge crowd.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 282
Saturday, August 6, 1932, Page 3
Troops Rescue 65 Besieged Indiana Miners
Miners Saved by Troops
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 283
Sunday, August 7, 1932, Page 1
Downstate Returns Reduce Early Margin Against $5 Wage Scale
      SPRINGFIELD, Aug. 7. (Sunday) --UP)-- A neck and neck finish was forecast by Illinois union miner officials for the second $5 wage scale referendum though latest available returns from 110 locals gave opponents of the pay a lead of 3,729 votes.
      With10,000 or more ballots still expected to filter in, unofficial tabulations to date showed 16,540 voting against and 12,811 for the scale. Higher totals were previously reported but re-checks disclosed several duplications.
Wait for Votes
      The headquarters ot International President John L. Lewis here beamed confidence that his downstate strength would beat down the opposition and bring adoption of the proposed scale -- cause for which Lewis and District President John H. Walker forgot differences of many years standing and campaigned hand in hand among the rank and file.
      An analysis of the vote, union leaders asserted, show clearly that the tide was swinging toward ratification of the proposed contract.
      Just three weeks ago, they said, 99 of the 110 reporting locals had cast 17,261 ballots "no" and only 7,057 "yes."
Shows Increase
      The returns from yesterday's referendum showed an increase of approximately 90 per cent in the vote cast and indicated that the Walker-Lewis combine gained 95 per cent, whereas the opposing forces lost about five per cent.
      The unreported locals cast 6,485 votes against and 2,875 for the scale in the previous referendum but observers declared if the same ratio of gain were maintained by proponents of the scale, it was possible the outcome would not be known until official tellers completed their count here next week.
Finish Close
      It was agreed the finish would be too close to venture an out and out prediction although early returns had indicated a defeat of the referendum by about 7,000 ballots. The inpouring southern Illinois votes -- from the heart of the Lewis strongholds -- rapidly turned almost certain defeat into possible victory.
      No statements were forthcoming from either Lewis or Walker and it was understood they were reluctant to make any with the outcome so uncertain. Long before the tide began to turn in his favor, however, Lewis indicated he would make no concessions to his opponents.
Did Not Figure
      Many of the locals reporting did not figure in the last referendum. Their ballots and been thrown out because they were not in good standing, because their seals were missing, or for other causes. What their status will be in the official count could not be ascertained at once but it was certain this could be a factor in deciding the outcome.
      Walker and Lewis have predicted defeat of the referendum would spell the destruction of the Illinois district, strongest bituminous coal mine union in the nations, result in further shut downs of mines and aggravate suffering among the thousands of diggers who have been jobless since last March 31.
      As the margin of apparent referendum defeat kept narrowing, union officials in Springfield expressed the belief that downstate strength of international President John L. Lewis would swing the tide in favor of the scale when all of the state's 240 locals will have been tabulated.
      The largest returns represented 118 locals, among them some of the largest of the Illinois district, where earlier returns, however, indicated victory by 7,000 votes for opponents of the pay, the forces of Lewis and District President John H. Walker were gaining steadily on basis of Southern Illinois tabulations.
Give Plurality
      Williamson county, for example, gave the wage scale a favorable plurality of 3,000 and Perry county one of 600. Franklin county, however, went against by a plurality of 1,820 and Saline county by a margin of 411.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 282
Saturday, August 6, 1932, Page 4
Troopers Guard Indiana Mine
Armed Guards
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 188
Monday Evening, August 8, 1932, Page 1
      Springfield, Ill., Aug. 8. --(United Press.) -- Officials of the Illinois District Miners' union marked time today awaiting the beginning of the official count of the votes in a referendum Saturday when the membership of the state union voted on a proposed five dollar day basic wage, a decrease of $1.10 from the previous scale."
      At the offices of John H. Walker, district president, and John L. Lewis president of the United Mine Workers of America, there was still hope that the agreement had been accepted despite unofficial returns from all parts of the state which showed the proposal had apparently been beaten.
      They based their hopes on unreported locals in southern Illinois where strength for the agreement had increased as compared with the vote which rejected a similar agreement on July 16.
May Invalidate Vote of Some
      Another angle to be considered as possibly bearing on the hopes of union leaders that the agreement may be accepted is that some of the local unions which voted may be in bad standing thus invalidating their vote.
      in case the vote of a number of large locals with a big negative vote were to be thrown out it might be possible that the affirmative vote would carry.
      Fox Hughes, Herrin, district vice-president, was optimistic over chances of the agreement toeing accepted.
      "I believe the official count will show that the agreement has carried," he said. "Most of the returns which have been published in the newspapers have been turned in by local union officials opposed to the agreement.
      "I do not believe we will know to a certainty until Wednesday what the outcome will be. I expect it to be close either way."
      Hughes said the official result will be made known Wednesday and that the district policy committee may meet Thursday or Friday.
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Defeat Indicated Thus Far
      Springfield, Ill., Aug. 8. --(United Press.)-- Defeat for the $5 a day basic wage proposal submitted to Illinois coal miners was indicated today as local unions in the state's coal fields tabulated votes in Saturday's referendum.
      With two-thirds of the total vote counted, a United Press tabulation by locals showed 17,177 votes against the proposed agreement against 10,227 for it.
      Central and northern fields voted approximately two to one against ratification, while the vote in the a southern part of the state ranged from heavy majorities against the a scale to a vote favoring it in Williamson and Perry counties.
Face Gloomy Future
      Barring a virtually impossible swing in other locals that would place nearly all their votes in ratification column, reopening of mines that have been closed since March 31, when the old scale expired will be indefinitely delayed. Most of the 42 ,000 miners in the state will consequently face a further workless, payless period.
      The unions voted down a previous wage proposal, practically identical, by on overwhelming majority.
      Official result of the ballots will not be known until the locals have sent their results to state headquarters here for counting.
      The tide against the $5 a day wage, which was a reduction of $1.10 from the old basic wage scale, came in spite of campaigns by John H. Walker, president of the Illinois district. United Mine Workers of America, and John L. Lewis, international president. They toured the coal fields, speaking at mass meetings and urging ratification of the contract as "the best that can be got."
      The Springfield local No. 492, to which Walker belongs, voted against the proposal, 307 to 19. Local No. 1, Panama, where Lewis belongs, voted it down, 330 to 32.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 284
Tuesday, August 9, 1932, Page 1
Uncertainty Shrouds Outcome Of Miners Vote on $5 Scale;
Union Officials Still Confident
      SPRINGFIELD, Aug. 8. --(AP)-- Uncertainty shrouded the outcome of the second Illinois' union miners referendum on the proposed $5 daily wage scale contract as official tellers secretly counted the ballots tonight, hopeful they would, finish tomorrow.
      Unofficial newspaper tabulations from 137 out of 240 locals showed the diggers voting 19,510 to 14,705 against the contract but from high union officials came expressions of confidence that the scale would be ratified by "a safe margin" and the contract with mine owners signed within a few days.
      International President John L. Lewis, refused to make any formal statement at this time, but expressed belief official returns would show ratification of the scale. Private tabulations at his headquarters indicated a favorable plurality of about 200 votes.
      A like margin of victory was predicated by compilations of A. T. Pace of Herrin, international representative, with only a few small downstate locals missing, Pace reported the vote was 18,221 to 17,998 for ratification.
      The union officials suggested that the discrepancy in the unofficial union and newspaper tabulations might be due to absence of many downstate locals in the latter figures.
      Among 10 "watchers" who charged they were asked to leave by Walter Nesbit of Belleville, secretary treasurer of the state union, were Dan McGill of local 921, Springfield ; William G. Hutchin, of local 664, William McAuly of local 754, Riverton, and Joe Viviano and Anton Noval of Panama local No. 1.
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Deputies, Assigned To Maintain Peace, May Be Disbanded
      BENTON, Aug. 8. --(AP)-- Steps were taken today to disband the force of several hundred men commissioned as deputy sheriffs to maintain peace while meetings were being held by miners the past two weeks to discuss the new wage scale which was voted upon Saturday.
      Fourteen mayors of Franklin county and Sheriff Browning Robinson met today with State Attorney Marion M. Hart and promised to co-operate in "demobilizing" the force of temporary officers. The men were deputized to maintain order after John W. Walker, Illinois president of the United Mine Workers, had been prevented from speaking at Johnston City, and a group of men had thrown stones at his automobile. Sheriff Robinson and the mayors attending today's meetings said they would revoke the commissions at once.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 189
Tuesday Evening, August 9, 1932, Page 1
      Springfield, Ill., Aug. 9. --(United Press.)-- Return of thousands of Illinois union coal miners to diggings from which they have been absent for months because of a wage controversy "within a few days" as a result of anticipated approval of a proposed five-dollar day basic wage scale, was forecast in statements by union executives here today.
      The prediction was made at the offices of John L. Lewis, president of, the United Mine Workers of America, by William J. Sneed, Herrin, former vice-president of the Illinois district miners' union, following statements by other union officers that a analysis of returns from districts return held Saturday shows that the agreement has been approved by the district membership.
Majority is Smart
      Lewis' statement, made in the face of newspaper returns which indicted yesterday that the agreement had been decisively beaten by a majority of several thousand, declared that the new scale had been ratified by a small majority.
      "The agreement has carried," said Lewis.
      "By just how much of a majority the miners have approved it, I cannot say but I do know the official tally will show the proposal has been approved."
      Walter Nesbit, Belleville, district secretary and treasurer, and Fox Hughes, Herrin, vice-president also asserted beliefs that the agreement had been approved.
      "This means that miners will be back on their jobs within a few days," said Sneed..
      Just as soon as the official result shows the agreement ratified, representatives of the miners and operators will sign the new scale and prepare for a resumption of work.
Will Reopen Quickly
      The mines, most of which have been idle since last March 31 when a wage scale contract providing a basic day wage of $6.10 expired, will reopen as quickly as they can be placed in working condition, according to Sneed, who with Lewis represents the United Mine Workers of America in negotiating the new wage scale.
      "That means that some mines will be functioning the day after the agreement has been signed," he said. "In most cases it will take only a few days to have them ready for work."
      John P. Jones, West Frankfort, former provisional district president and in charge of offices of the international union here, also forecast quick resumption of work as a result of the expected approval of the agreement.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 286
Thursday, August 11, 1932, Pages 1 & 2
Disappearance of Returns Prompts Officials to Sign $5 Agreement
      SPRINGFIELD, Aug. 10. --(AP)-- Acting in the face of an emergency, due to the disappearance of official returns from more than 200 locals in the miners state-wide wage scale referendum, miners' officials late today, adjudged the referendum, as having passed, and calling their scale committee and the operators into immediate joint session signed a new wage agreement.
      John L. Lewis, international president, made the announcement, and added that the same terms adopted in Illinois, had been written into a contract soon to be signed by miners and operators in Indiana.
Now Effective
      "The contract," Lewis said, "becomes effective at midnight tonight." The contract provides for a $5 basic daily wage scale, for day workers or company men and a tonnage rate of 68 cents a ton for hand diggers of coal. It also sets the wages of strip miners.
      Signatories were: for the miners -- International President John L. Lewis; District President John H. Walker; Vice-President Fox Hughes; Secretary Walter Nesbit and Chairman John Moulin of the miners wage scale committee.
For Operators
      For the operators; William Jenkins, president of the Illinois Coal Operators association, and Fred S. Wilkey, its secretary.
      The $5 scale was rejected by the miners by an over-whelming vote little more than three weeks ago, after union leaders and operators spent four months in negotiating it. The old scale was $6.10 a day. It expired last March 31 and thousands of miners have been jobless since.
      The contract signed today was tentatively adopted by a joint wage scale conference of miners and operators two weeks ago at Springfield. It met with vigorous opposition of miners who voted on it last Saturday. Unofficial and incomplete newspaper returns predicted its defeat but union executives declared their tabulations indicated it would pass. Lewis announced acceptance of the contract in the presence of all miner signatories, members of the executive board of the operators and district President Walker. No statement was made by Walker.
Calls Conference
      The international president after being informed earlier in the day of the theft of the vote returns from the locals, declared the whole mine situation in the state "has become a farce." He immediately called a conference of district union officials.
      The fact that the operators committee was also invited was kept secret and word of their participation did not leak out until mid-afternoon.
      Lewis declared signing of the agreement was in accordance with powers delegates to union officers by the rank and file of miners. A tabulation of the referendum, he said, was made impossible by the theft of the ballots earlier in the day from two official tellers a few hundred feet away from the mine headquarters.
Will Resume Operations
      "Mines of the state," he announced, "will resume operations as quickly as they can be made ready and as fully as market conditions will permit. Confusion in the industry is thus terminated.
      "Resumption of normal activities will ensue again and the full influence of the United Mine Workers of America will be exercised to carry out obligations of the agreement and compel obedience to its provisions and exact compliance with the laws of the United Mine Workers and the statutes of the state and the nation."
Steal Returns
      The tellers reporting they had been forced by two unidentified men to surrender the official referendum, returns of more than 200 union locals at the point of a pistol were Orlie Blackman of Carrier Mills and George Gee of Streator.
      Crack detectives of the Springfield police department were immediately put on the case but so far have reported no progress in their investigation.
      A handful of miners from various locals over the state held a protest meeting. Dan McGill, their spokesman, charged the hold-up was "a hoax." Counter charges were made by District President Walker that "apparently" opponents of the wage scale, inspired by "communists," were responsible.
      The reported holdup occurred in an alley within less than a half block of the union headquarters. The tellers were on their way from the Ridgely State bank a block away where the returns had been kept overnight, to resume their count.
      Lewis declared loss of what he referred to as "ballots" not only threw the entire joint relationship of the miners' union and operators into confusion and made impossible a referendum count, but also created an emergency that had to be met at once.
Claim Approval
      State and international union officers, he declared, "have been and are now of conclusive opinion that the agreement was approved by a majority of members in the recent vote." "Unofficial tabulations," he asserted, "heretofore compiled support this judgment."
      The wage agreement, he said, represented the best judgment of miner and mine owner representatives "who have labored for the last four months to solve the economic and commercial problems of the state and its coal industry.
Expresses Hope
      He expressed hope signing of the contract would restore the Illinois coal industry to normalcy in a manner "that will contribute to the welfare of the industry, its employes and the people of the state."
      "Disorders," he said, "which for some time have raged in certain communities and even permeated the confines of the city of Springfield must be allayed and lawless characters who have been creating trouble will be dealt with in a proper way."
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      BENTON, Aug. 10. --(AP)-- Hundreds of empty coal cars have been returned to the mines here and "spotted" on side tracks in preparation for an anticipated resumption of work.
      The unemployed of Benton , including miners, have been put to work cleaning up the city and in return they have received orders on grocery stores for food. Some have been sweeping sidewalks and others have been cleaning rubbish from the streets and cutting weeds.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 191
Thursday Evening, August 11, 1932, Page 1
State's Basic Industry Saved by New Wage Contract.
By DON E. CHAMBERLAIN (United Press Staff Correspondent.)
      Springfield, Ill., Aug. 11. -- Wheels of a state basic Industry involving livelihoods of more than half a million persons and payrolls totaling more than a million dollars a week whirled today as thousands of Illinois coal miners, idle since March 31, prepared to resume work in 'diggings' following signing of a miners' $5 day basic wage agreement here yesterday.
      The agreement, approved by a joint conference of representatives of the Illinois district mine union and the Illinois Coal Operators' association, became effective at midnight last night, and had the effect today of reopening some mines which were in condition to resume normal functions.
Expect 25,000 to Return
      Other mines were being prepared for work and by Monday 25,000 of the state's approximate 45,000 diggers are expected to be back in the pits, ending an idleness of more than four months while union leaders and operators struggled to negotiate a wage agreement.
      Approval and signing of the agreement was decided in the face of the district referendum, which, according to newspaper returns from more than two-thirds of the district local unions, showed the proposed scale was beaten by several thousand votes.
      The action followed the theft of returns from local unions in a holdup yesterday.
Emergency Created
      John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers of America, who said that an unofficial tabulation revealed that the agreement had carried, declared that because of the loss of the returns a "state of emergency" had been created in the industry and acting under that "emergency" he declared the agreement carried, called a meeting of operators' and miners' representatives and they signed the scale.
      Announcement of the agreement was made by Lewis in the presence of those attending the conference. As he made the announcement, his secretary, Oral Garrison , handed out copies of the agreement to newspapermen, each copy containing the signatures of those who signed the proposal.
Ends Confusion
      "This ends confusion in the industry and will allow resumption of normal activities in a great basic industry," said Lewis.
      "It means that approximately 45,000 miners will in a short time be able to return to work or nearly so, depending upon market demands.
      "It also win mean a resumption of business activity In those lines which are affected by the prosperity or degression in the state coal industry."
      By this Lewis meant, railroads, merchants in mining communities which have been reported close to bankruptcy as a result of the shutdown of the mines, and other lines of business.
      In Springfield alone it is estimated that return of the miners to work will mean and Increased expenditure of $100,000 a week.
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Recall 1200 at Duquoin
      Duquoin, Ill., Aug. 11. --(UP)-- The only three idle mines here during the mine wage controversy resumed operations today when 1200 miners were recalled to work.
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Eight Mines Reopen at Herrin
      Herrin, Ill., Aug. 11. --(UP)-- Many coal miners and railroad employes here returned to work today when eight coal mines went into operation here today.
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More Than 1100 at Peoria
      Peoria, Ill., Aug. 11. --(UP)-- Coal mines employing more than 1100 men put crews to work today cleaning up their properties preparatory to resuming production within the next few days.
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Gives Hope in Indiana
      Terre Haute, Ind., Aug. 11. --(UP)-- Hope mounted for a renewed agreement between operators and union coal miners in Indiana on the heels . . . the pits at a basic wage of $5 a day.
      Abe Vales, president of district No. 11 United Mine Workers of America, said today that the Illinois agreement would no doubt have some bearing on negotiations in Indiana.
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Miners Ask Protection
      Indianapolis. Aug 11 --(UP)-- Representatives of 12 non-union Indiana mines have presented to Gov. Harry G. Leslie a formal statement asking protection from violence of pickets of the United Mine Workers of America.
      The statement said that one-third of the state's miners are not affiliates with the U. M. W. of A., and that one- . . .
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Beginning ~ August 11, 1932

The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 287
Friday, August 12, 1932, Pages 1 & 2
Statewide Movement to Override Basic Wage Agreement Gains Impetus
      SPRINGFIELD, Aug., 11. --(AP)-- Union miners dissatisfied with the new $5 basic wage scale negotiated by their district officials held a protest demonstration in front of one of the reopened shafts here today but dispersed quietly at the appearance of special police details.
      Meanwhile, a statewide movement to override the action of officials who pronounced the new rate effective last night when theft of referendum ballots halted the vote count took on added impetus.
Circulate Petitions
      Petitions were circulated through the southern Illinois coal field calling for a state convention to abrogate the new scale, and local and regional protest meetings were called.
      A huge mass meeting was planned for Sunday at Benton by the protesting group "for the purpose of taking such steps as are necessary to nullify the contract."
Will Picket Mines
      Before today's demonstration had ended, Ed Mabie, one of the protesting leaders, announced that all mines operating in the district would be picketed tomorrow.
      The new scale was declared in effect by union leaders yesterday. Officials encountered opposition from the start for sponsoring the new scale which represents a reduction of $1.10 over the rate which expired in April.
      It was estimated that 3,000 men, the vanguard of 150,000 miners, went to work in Illinois today as a result of the new scale. Dozens of mines, closed for months during the wage negotiations, were opened for preparatory work.
For Better Business
      "We regard the mine reopening as the greatest single factor for better business during recent months in the Midwest," said D. W. Buchanan, chairman of the Illinois mine operators wage committee, at Chicago.
      "The mines now will spend thousands of dollars for new equipment. So will the railroads that haul the coal."
      George Smith, superintendent of the Capital mine, where the demonstration was held, said work would be resumed tomorrow with the same number of men. He anticipated no trouble.
      Most of the crowd of 400, Smith said, are former employes of other mines and had never been connected with the Capital workings.
      The Capital shaft, owned by the Peabody Coal company, today had put 44 men to work in cleaning up the pit. As they finished work, the demonstrators pleaded with them not to return tomorrow at the new scale.
      The 44 men were not threatened nor harmed, police officials said.
      Several squads of Springfield city police were at the scene, while Chief Walter Moody of the state highway police and G. C. Goyke, director of Catholic charities here, were ready to plead for order.
      Plans to hold a mass meeting here tonight were abandoned.
      Miners at the Cora mine, a Peabody property at the edge of town, were not approached by the protesting miners.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 287
Friday, August 12, 1932, Page 3
Three Thousand go To Work in Coal Mines of Illinois
      CHICAGO, Aug. 11. --(AP)-- Three thousand men -- the vanguard of an estimated 150,000 -- went to work in Illinois today as the result of a new wage scale agreement between coal mine operators and union workers.
      Dozens of mines, closed for months during wage negotiations, were opened for preparatory work. Engineers said gas deposits would have been cleared and the mines ready for hoisting coal by tomorrow.
      Several thousand additional men will be working by Saturday, it was estimated, 15,000 by next Monday, and 25,000 within two weeks. The coal diggers will work on a basic scale of $5 a day, compared with $6.10 before suspension of the old scale last April.
      "We regard the mine re-openings as the greatest single factor for better business during recent months in the Midwest ," said D. W. Buchanan, chairman of the Illinois mine operators wage committee
      "The mine now will spend thousands of dollars for new equipment. So will the railroads that haul the coal.
      "In addition to the diggers, of whom 40,000 eventually will be employed, the mines will hire salesmen and clerical help, and the railroads also will increase their payrolls. Eventually at least 150,000 persons will directly benefit."
      Buchanan appealed to consumers in Illinois to buy coal from companies in their own state in order to increase employment.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 192
Friday Evening, August 12, 1932, Page 1
      Danville, Ill., Aug. 12. --(UP)-- Petition of the United Mine Workers of America to have W. A. Brewerton removed as receiver for the Interstate Coal company and the Brewerton Coal company, for alleged mismanagement, had been dismissed today as a result of a hearing held here yesterday before Judge Walter C. Lindley in United Sates district court
      Commenting on, the dismissal of the petition Lindley declared he could "find no evidence that would warrant me in removing as receiver a man who in four years has paid out more than three million dollars in wages."
      Brewerton in testimony presented at the hearing declared that more than two and one half million tons of coal had been mined under the receivership at a total cost of around $4,000,000 of which more than three fourths of it had been paid in the form of wages.
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      Springfield, Ill., Aug. 12. --(UP)-- Reports indicating that 15,000 miners have returned to work in various parts of the state have been received at headquarters of the Illinois District Mine Union, according to an announcement by John Moulin, Zeigler, chairman of the miners' wage scale committee, today.
      Moulin declared that most of the mines in Franklin and Saline counties were reported to be working and that mines in condition in other sections also were hoisting coal for the first time today under the new contract.
      "There are at least a,8,000 miners at work in Franklin and Saline counties today, according to reports I receive," Moulin said. "There are 3,000 more working in Christian County and several thousand more in other sections."
      Moulin declared that men who are reported to be picketing mines in central Illinois were men who would be unable to get work if the mines were re-opened.
      "By picketing the mines," Moulin said, "these men will deprive miners eligible to work from getting to the pits and if this continues for two days they will then be placed on suspended lists by the operators and a new list of eligebles will be made up. Thus it will be possible for some miners, not in good standing, now, to get on some of the new lists.
      Moulin explained the suspension clause of the contract declaring that it provides that miners, not reporting for work within two days after receiving notice of availability of employment are automatically suspended unless they can show a good cause for not being present for work.
Statement of Activities
      Inability of miners, to reach the mines because of picketing is not considered a just reason for not working." he said.
      The following statement as to mining activities was issued by Moulin:
      "The Bell and Zollar Mine No. 2 at Ziegler, Is hoisting coal today.
      "No. 1 and 2 Orient have all the men they need working to clean up today preparatory to hoisting, coal tomorrow.
      No. 18 Old Ben Coal Company, Johnston City, and No. 12 Old Ben Christopher, have all the men they need at work cleaning up today preparatory to hoisting coal tomorrow.
      "All the mines are at work in the Du Quoin district with the exception of two strip pits.
      "All of the mines In Williamson County have all the men they need, cleaning up, some of them hoisting coal.
      "All of the mines in northern Illinois are at work.
      "Practically all of the mines in the Belleville district are at work.
      "All of the mines in Saline County are cleaning up, some of them hoisting coal.
      "In the Danville district all mines are working except those that have no orders.
      "In the Peoria district with the exception of mine Nine, the men have decided to go to work. Practically all of the mines are working either cleaning up or hoisting coal.
      "In the Belleville district no report of any disorder -- everything is moving along peacefully.
      "The Peabody mines at Danville. No. 18 and 19 at West Frankfort, and the four mines in the Taylorville district are all working with full crews hoisting coal.
      "There is necessarily some confusion some disorder arising out of this situation, but on the whole, matters are in much more satisfactory condition than could reasonably be expected."
Is Greatest Single Factor
      "We regard the mine re-openings as the greatest single factor for better business during recent months," D. W. Buchanan, chairman of the Illinois Coal Operators Association wage committee, Chicago, said yesterday in commenting on resumption of mining activities.
      "The mines will spend thousands of dollars for new equipment. So will the railroads, that haul the coal.
      Operators estimated that at least 25.000 miners will have returned to work by September 1 and possibly more if business in the industry warrants.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 288
Saturday, August 13, 1932, Pages 1 & 2
Coal Mines of State Take New Lease on Life After Inactivity Of 4 Months; Pickets Arrive
      BELLEVILLE, Aug. 12. --(AP)-- Coal miners decided to call a general strike for all mines in the Belleville district, effective Monday morning, at a mass meeting here this afternoon to protest the new $5 basic daily wage scale agreement.
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SPRINGFIELD, Aug. 12. --(AP)-- Though pickets stood guard at many tipples, coal mines of the state took a new lease on life today after four months of inactivity.
      The $5 daily basic wage scale was in force and a command to obey went down to locals protesting its adoption from John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers of America.
      It was apparent many miners over the state nursed resentment at signing of the contract as an "emergency measure" by district and international officers. Union officials, however, expressed belief the attitude would be short lived.
      Confronted by opposition to the contract from a number of locals here, in Gillespie, Peoria and southern Illinois mines, Lewis issued a proclamation warning the miners in effect to fall in line or face the consequences: expulsion from the union.
      First coal was hoisted in Franklin county today under the new wage agreement and four Peabody company coal mines in the Taylorville sub-district hummed with activity. Others were being cleaned up for resumption of digging- tomorrow morning.
      The Lewis order to "stop picketing and mass meetings" went out to all recalcitrant locals by telegram today but its effects could not be guaged.
      Opposition leaders, whom Lewis has threatened with punishment, indicated however, they did not plan to obey.
      Pickets continued to surround tipples in the Springfield sub-district, where opposition to the contract has been keen. A mass meeting was planned for Reservoir park tomorrow and all locals refusing to work were asked to send representatives.
      Dan McGill and other spokesmen of the protesting miners avowed that not a single union man went down the shafts today. Peabody officials, however, said 21 clean-up men passed through the pickets at the Woodside mine here and 30 at the Capitol shaft.
      The company announced it planned to begin hoisting coal at Woodside tomorrow and meantime to continue clean-up work at Capitol and Peerless and Cora tipples to begin digging Monday. It would require about five days to prepare the Riverton mine for operations.
      No disturbances were reported at any of the shafts although a sheriff's deputy was dispatched to Woodside on request of mine officials who feared a gathering crowd might get out of hand. Opposition leaders, however, cautioned their men against any violence.
      The protesting headmen expressed belief privately the Lewis telegram would be "ignored" by the locals and the picketing continued but none could be found who would say this publicly. "We can't speak for the locals," was as far as they would go.
      The district headquarters of President John H. Walker was optimistic. It issued a statement declaring that "matters are in much more satisfactory condition than could be reasonably expected."
      The only sub-districts in which mines were prevented from opening by pickets, district officials claimed, were in Springfield and Peoria. They said the diggers "would soon quietly put their dinner buckets under their arms and go back to the mines."
      The sentiment of many miners here was expressed, the leaders said, by the statement of President Peter Derose, of Local No. 494 from the old west mine of the Panther Creek company, which has been running under the old scale of $6.10.
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The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Volume LXI Number 288
Saturday, August 13, 1932, Page 2
Indiana Miners Fail to Arbitrate Wage Disputes
      TEURE HAUTE, Ind., Aug. 12. --(UP) -- Representatives of the United Mine Workers and the Indiana Coal Operators association adjourned the first day's session here tonight without having reached any agreement for a new mine wage contract in Indiana.
      Meeting this morning, the full scale committees named sub-committees of five members from each group to carry on negotiations. This group up of ten will continue their conference tomorrow morning.
      If and when the smaller group reaches an agreement, the full scale committees will be recalled and the proposal presented to them for action. If accepted, it still will be necessary for it to be approved by the miners, either in convention or by referendum.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 193
Saturday Evening, August 13, 1932, Page 1
      Belleville, Ill. Aug 13. --(UP)-- A general strike at all coal mines in the Belleville district, effective on Monday, was called at a mass meeting of miners here last night.
      The order will affect about 2200 employes of 25 local mines which have been operating under the old wages scale of $6.10 a day. The strike was called when operators announced a reduction to the new $5 scale.
      The miners issued a call to "all miners not satisfied with agreement forced upon us by disloyal officials"' to meet at Benld, Ill., Sunday to lay plans for a state wide strike. Another mass meeting was called for Monday here to take steps to enforce the strike order and prevent the operation of mines in the district.
      The meeting last night adopted a resolution calling for a state convention to consider recalling district officers and deposition of members of the scale committee, which voted favorably on the new wage scale.
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Springfield, Ill., Aug. 13. --(UP)-- Mines thruout Illinois were picketed today by union coal diggers protesting against a new $5 day basic wage agreement, as they sought to prevent other union miners, favorable to the new scale, from going to work.
      Mines in central Illinois, where opposition to the new contract is strongest, were picketed on al sides shortly after powerful mine whistles let loose siren like blasts at 6 o'clock this morning to let miners know that "diggins". would hoist coal today for the first time in more than four months in most instances.
      Opposition to the scale appeared today, to have gained strength as pickets induced many miners to return to their homes as they appeared at mines to report for work.
      Mines here were picketed by many diggers from the local union of John H. Walker, president of the Illinois district union. With hundreds of other miners acting as pickets they posted themselves at all approaches to mines and warned back other miners who, favoring acceptance of the scale, reported for work.
      In many instances the pickets were successful in their arguments. There was no violence altho some threats promising a "beating up" or "we'll blow your head off" were heard. The threats were made by pickets to men who appeared at "diggings" ready to work.
      Meanwhile members of locals here and in other parts of central Illinois, ignoring a threat of John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers of America, to revoke their union membership if they picket mines and hold mass meetings of protest, planned huge mass meetings for here today and at Benld and Gillespie tomorrow.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 194
Monday Evening, August 15, 1932, Page 1
Miners Working Under New Agreement to Be Protected.
      Taylorville, Ill., Aug. 15. --(United Press.)-- With merchants, lawyers, doctors and clerks acting as patrols, the citizenry of Christian county today presented a grim "front" to a threatened "march" of union coal miners, protesting of the five dollar wage scale agreement and determined to persuade other union "diggers" in this section to quit work.
      Employed at vantage points on state highways, at railroad stations and near mines, so as to head off any of the "marching" miners, the Citizenry guard, armed with shotguns, rifles , pistols and tear gas bombs, were ready to deal with any "invaders."
Will Protect Workers
      Sheriff Charles Wienecke, who swore in members of the guard as special deputy sheriffs, to help put down any disorders, said that he was prepared to give appropriate protection to union miners who have accepted the five dollar agreement and who want to work.
      "We will not stand for any interference with men in Christian county who want to work," he said. "No one is going to deprive a Christian county citizen from working."
      Altho the citizens, comprising members of the American Legion post here,the Taylorville Association of Commerce and of citizens committees in various county townships were on patrol duty early the "invaders" failed to put in an appearance.
      Reports were that they had planned to leave Benld where they held a huge mass meeting yesterday and voted for a state-wide strike in protest of the five dollar wage, early today to reach here at 8 o'clock this morning.
      Efforts to ascertain their location when they failed to appear however, proved fruitless, the only leader, Dan McGill, Springfield, who would be located, saying he had nothing to say.
Most of Mines Hoisting
      At Benld there was no -evidence of any effort to organize for a "march" on here where most all coal mines were hoisting today. Neither was, there an indication in Springfield, where the idea for the "march" on Taylorville originated at a miners' mass meeting Saturday, that plans for such "march" had been prepared. A report from Benld was to the effect that a "policy committee" had gone to Springfield to work out the details for the "March" and fix a date for staging it.
      Authorities here however said they would not relax their vigilance pointing out that the miners, opposing a re-opening of "diggings" on a five dollar a day basis, may be employing a ruse.
      They said they would continue maintaining a guard until certain that plans for a "march" had been abandoned.
      The guards patrolled in groups. Most of them were dressed in regular "store clothes," with here and there someone garbed in knickers or overalls.
Calls Leaders Communists.
      Colonel George Seaman, chairman of the Christian County Citizens' Protective league, with a membership of 1,000, denounced those urging miners, to picket Christian county "diggings" as "Communists."
      Others who said the prospective pickets were Communists were Warren Powell and Glen Schaeffer, operators of mines at Pana.
      They said "Communists" were attempting to agitate Pana miners and requested aid of citizens in preventing their interference with mine operations.
      A group of Taylorville miners who attended a mass meeting at Benld, Macoupin county, yesterday, reported today that they were manhandled, stoned and run out of the town, termed in the recent Wickersham report as "the wickedest town in Illinois."
      Thousands of southern Illinois coal miners returned to work today under the terms of the recently adopted $5 daily basic wage scale.
      In Franklin county, where one-fourth of the union membership in the state works, 2,000 miners were busy either hoisting coal or preparing the shafts for operations this week. An additional 4,000 miners, who have been idle for four months, were expected to be recalled during the week to place coal production in Franklin county on a normal scale.
      None of the mines in the southern Illinois coal belt reported a shortage of men available.
      Two mines of the Orient Coal company, largest coal mines in the world, were hoisting coal with full crews today, while two shafts of the Old Ben Coal company were nearing normal production schedules.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 195
Tuesday Evening, August 16, 1932, Page 2
      Taylorville, Ill., Aug. 16. --(United Press.)-- A skeleton citizens' guard, created Sunday by Christian county residents to block a threatened "march" of miners seeking to dissuade other "diggers', in this county from returning to work on a five dollar day basic wage, continued patrol duty on highways leading to barricaded mines here today.
      The guard, more than a thousand strong and consisting of merchants, lawyers, doctors, clerks and other workers, who volunteered for duty in order to allow union miners who want to work to do so, functioned for the first time early yesterday. Armed with shotguns, rifles and pistol and reportedly also with tear gas bombs, the Citizens did sentry post duty at highways, railroad stations and near mines turnout the county.
      Today most of the guard had been withdrawn by Sheriff Charles Wienecke as it became apparent that the threatened "march" would not reach the developing point late today or tomorrow. Wienecke said however, that he was ready to put them back just as soon as he receives word that miners have started their "march." All the guards have been sworn in as deputy sheriffs.
Will Decide Today
      Springfield , Ill., Aug. 16. --(United Press.)-- Decision as to whether a "march on Taylorville" to picket Christian county miners in an effort to persuade union men to refrain from working under the new five dollar a day contract is expected to be reached at a mass meeting of union miners protesting against the scale here today.
      A strike called by miners of the Springfield, Gillespie and Belleville subdistricts for yesterday was reported to have been approximately 100 per cent effective in central Illinois insofar as keeping mines from hoisting coal in that section was concerned.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 196
Wednesday Evening, August 17, 1932, Page 1
Joseph Colbert Shot in Gunman Fashion Near Orient.
      Chicago, Aug. 17 --(UP)-- George Harrington, president of the Chicago, Wilmington and Franklin Coal company, said this afternoon that James Sutton, night watchman at the Orient mine near West Frankfort, was held at Benton as n suspect in the slaying of Joseph Colbert, recording secretary of Local No. 303, United Mine Workers.
      Harrington quoted Treadwell as saying Sutton had left the mine and was on his way home when Colbert was slain. Sutton's story as told to Treadwell was:
      "Colbert flagged me down as I was going past the field and started toward me. He stuck his hand in his overall pocket as if he was reaching for a gun. I shot in self defense."
      Treadwell telephoned Harrington that it was common knowledge at the mine that there had been ill feeling between the night watchman and Colbert.
      The story as relayed to Harrington differed widely from an earlier report that Colbert was summoned to an automobile in which three men were seated and shot down when he approached.
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      Orient, Ill., Aug. 17. --(UP)-- Joseph Colbert, 38, leader of southern Illinois miners protesting against the recent adoption of the $5 dally basic wage scale, was shot to death near here today by three men In an automobile, while his aged father looked on.
      Colbert, who was picking mushrooms in a field near his home when he was called to an automobile occupied by the three killers, was recording secretary of Orient local 303, United Mine Workers of America.
      According to Colbert's father, William Colbert, the two were in a field near the Colbert home.
Father Tells of Murder
      An automobile drove up the road about 100 yards from us," the aged man said , "and one of the three men in the car called 'Come here, Joe.'
      "Joe went over to the car and when he got within about 25 feet, one of the men in the car leveled a shot gun at him and fired.
      "Then they drove the car away as fast as they could toward Benton." The father of the dead man could not give an accurate description of the trio. He said that he had never seen them before.
      Colbert, who authorities described as a radical, was chairman of the recent mass meeting of miners at Benld held to protest against the adoption by state mine union officials of the new wage scale.
      Thruout southern Illinois, Colbert was known as the leader of the opposition to the new wage scale, and presided over many mass meetings in protest.
      Authorities said Colbert held considerable influence among a large group of miners in Franklin county, where one-fourth of the state membership of the union resides.
      Since the signing of the wage contract, Colbert has urged miners at protest meetings, "not to return to work until officials make a correct count of the referendum vote of the miners."
      County authorities in charge of the investigation of the slaying said that they were unable to determine whether the slaying of Colbert was the out-growth of his campaign among miners or a personal grudge.
      Union officials reported that there had been no trouble at the Orient mine No. 1 where the membership of the local Colbert headed is employed. The mine, they reported, was working today.
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Arm Civilians Again
      Taylorville, Ill., Aug. 17. --(UP)-- Armed civilian guards, patrolling highways and railroad tracks to halt "invasion" of Christian county by union coal miners intent on picketing Taylorville mines where other union diggers have returned to work after a $5 basic wage scale, bristled into activity today with the arrest here of a lone picket and the appearance at the Sangamon-Christian county line near Tovey of a roving band" of pickets who "persuaded" 74 "diggers" to remain away from work.
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      Taylorville, Ill., Aug. 17. --(UP)-- A citizens' guard of farmers, merchants, clerks and from other walks of life, formed to block a miners', "march" on Taylorville for the purpose of picketing Christian county mines, was doubled today as reports were received here that the proposed march will start from Springfield tomorrow to prevent "roving" 'miners from entering the city.
      Sheriff Charles Wienecke, who has sworn in more than a thousand private citizens as deputy sheriffs to act in an emergency, took steps today to double the guard determined that diggers who have returned to work in four mines in the vicinity under the $5 union day wage shall be allowed to continue work without interference.
      The guard was doubled following a late report yesterday that a detachment of miners who are backing an unofficial strike against the $5 wage had left Gillespie for Taylorville. The detachment failed to arrive, but Wienecke, fearing that an adventurous band of protesting diggers might take an idea to come here, decided to take extra precautions and increased the guards who are armed with machine guns and pistols. Mine guards, it is said, are armed with machine guns, and have thrown up rough barricades around mine shafts.
      Taylorville miners voted two to one in a district referendum to accept the $5 wage.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 197
Thursday Evening, August 18, 1932, Page 1
Taylorville Tense Over Threat by Springfield Miners
      Springfield, Ill., .Aug. 18. --(U P)-- Intent on persuading Christian county miners to quit working and join in a "strike" against a recently signed $5 day basic union wage scale, approximately 3000 miners of the Springfield and Gillespie subdistricts began a march" on Taylorville, 27 miles away, shortly afternoon today.
      The march was decided on following an announcement by Sheriff Charles Weinecke at Taylorville that a blockade of highways and at railroad stations to halt the "marchers" had been lifted.
      It was also made in the face of the possible calling out of state troops, in which direction steps were taken at 2 a. m. at a conference here today between Gov. L. L. Emmerson, who rose from, a sick bed to discuss the situation, and a delegation of Taylorville citizens, headed by Wienecke.
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      Springfield, Ill., Aug. 18. --(UP)-- Charters of local unions 790 and 4509, United Mine Workers of America, located at Ziegler, Franklin county, were revoked today by President John L. Lewis of the international union for their alleged failure to abide by the new wage contract. No action was taken in the case of a Galesburg local which yesterday was reported to have had its charter revoked.
      Lewis announced that provisional local unions would immediately be set up to protect the rights of members who had been loyal to the international organization. He sent telegrams to the presidents and secretaries of each of the locals involved in the action.
      The telegram sent to local 790 informing its officers of the revocation of charter, read in part as follows: "In view of these facts, involving continuous disloyalty, malicious activity and defiance of authority, you are hereby officially notified that the charter of local union 790, U. M. W. of A. is revoked and canceled, effective as of this date."
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      Taylorville, Ill., Aug. 18. --(U P)-- Six airplanes with machine guns and tear gas grenades sent here from Camp Grant, where the Illinois national guard is holding its annual encampment, circled over the city shortly after 7 o'clock this morning and landed in various fields in the vicinity.
      The planes, comprising the state guard's entire flying squadron, contain "observers" sent here by Adjt. Gen. Carlos E. Black, in command of the state militia, to confer with county authorities who asked Gov. L. L. Emmerson at Springfield early today to have troops ready to move here in case of trouble.
      The "trouble" feared would come from a threatened "invasion" of Taylorville and Christian county by miners opposed to a $5 day basic wage scale for the purpose of picketing mines where union "diggers" have gone to work under the $5 agreement.
Confer With Authorities
      After landing at Springfield Major Merrill D. Mann, in command of the planes, and several officers motored here and held a conference with Sheriff Charles Wienecke, W. C. Argust, superintendent of the Peabody Coal company mines in Christian county and others at the office of Walter Provine, former United States district attorney at Springfield.
      Gen. Thomas S. Hammond, commander of the 65th infantry brigade, Lieut. Col. Robert W. Davis, 130th infantry, Lieut. Col. Leroy E. Nelson and Lieut. Col . Harry Hill , accompanied the fliers.
      "This does not mean we have asked for troops," said Sheriff Wienecke. "It means that we laid the situation before the governor so that we may be assured of protection from trouble."
      Wienecke indicated that the vote of the Tovey mine to join miners of the Springfield, Gillespie and Belleville subdistricts of the Illinois district union in the "strike" against the $5 wage in defiance of pleas of union leaders had lessened the tension of the situation.
Meet Governor at 2 A. M.
      The conference at which Wienecke met with the governor's mansion at Springfield shortly after 2 o'clock this morning.
      After listening to what they had to say the governor called Gen. Black at Camp Grant and asked him how quickly he could start a troop movement to Taylorville.
      "At a moment's notice," Black is said to have replied.
      "Well, just have them ready in case we should need them," said Emmerson.
      "If the Springfield miners decide to abandon their 'march' all occasion for possible trouble will have been removed," the sheriff said.
      "If they decide to come here regardless, that's another thing and I will wait on that development."
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Are Ready at Duquoin
      Duquoin, Ill., Aug. 18. --(UP)-- More than 60 special deputy sheriffs today guarded highways entering Perry county to prevent an "invasion" of pickets from nearby counties.
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Planned for late Today
      Springfield, Ill., Aug. 18. --(UP)-- Protesting a new $5 daily basic wage scale agreement miners from the Gillespie and Springfield subdistricts of the Illinois mine district mine union assembled at a mass meeting at Reservoir Municipal park here today to decide whether to go thru with a proposal to ''march" on Christian county. The object of the "march" is to persuade union miners there who accepted the $5 wage to quit work until a more "satisfactory" wage contract has been signed.
      If the mass meeting decision is in favor of a "march" it probably will be late today before it is started.
      The "march," according to Lester Douglas, Springfield, one of the leaders, will be of a "peaceful nature."
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 197
Thursday Evening, August 18, 1932, Page 3
Galesburg Miners Close Three More Knox County Pits
      Galesburg, Ill., Aug. 18. --(United Press.)-- Striking miners of Galesburg local today closed three additional mines in Knox county near Knoxville and then joined with strikers of Peoria and Fulton counties to invade Fulton county and picket strip mines at St. David and Cuba which have been operating under the new scale.
      The Knox county mines where picketers persuaded miners to cease operations included the mine of the Knoxville Mining company where about 50 men are employed and two smaller mines.
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Miner Cut And Beaten
      Harrisburg, Ill., Aug. 18. --(United Press)-- Henry Boner, top boss at Ogra mine, No. 3, was cut and beaten by three men who attacked him at the mine today
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 198
Friday Evening, August 19, 1932, Page 1
      Taylorville, Ill., Aug. 19. --(UP)-- An army of approximately 15,000 union miners, gathered here from all parts of the state to force a shutdown of Christian county mines and this spread a protest "strike" against a $5 day basic wage scale, manned approaches to for "diggings" early today, determined to prevent opening of the county's last open shafts. The miners formed what is said to be the greatest picket line in Illinois labor history.
      The miners arose for picket duty after a night spent under the open sky at Kincaid -- a night during which state authorities moved four units of the Illinois national guard from Camp Grant, where the militia has been holding annual maneuvers, to their home towns near here "to stand in readiness in case of trouble."
Soldiers Arrive Home
      The soldiers were ordered entrained on the eve of "breaking" of the encampment, scheduled for tonight, at midnight. They left Rockford, near Camp Grant, shortly after midnight this morning and arrived at their armories several hours later.
      Three of the units of Company C of the 130th Infantry and Troop F and a machine gun troop of the 106th cavalry, are stationed at Springfield , 27 miles from here, and the remaining unit, headquarters company of the 130th Infantry, is from Decatur.
      The withdrawal of the troops from the annual encampment was explained by Brig. Gen. T. S. Hammond, Chicago as a "precautionary measure."
      He announced the order for their entrainment following an observation flight of six airplanes from Camp Grant over the Christian county mining area yesterday and after a conference with state officials at Springfield and county officials here.
      It was made clear that the order did not mean troops had been called out. They were merely being moved Hammond said, back to their home towns, 24 hours earlier than they ordinarily would have, so that they would be available in case of trouble here today.
Claim Half Are Working
      Claim that 25,000 miners, about half of the total number employed in the state, were working today was made in a statement by the Illinois coal operators' association who said this represented an increase of practically 40 per cent since Wednesday and expressed themselves as "more than gratified with the situation."
      Buying orders for Illinois coal are coming in satisfactorily, the operators announced, and the number of coal mining companies and mines in operation may be expected to be materially increased within the next few days.
      Seventeen major coal companies and a number of smaller ones, the statement said, were hoisting coal today or cleaning up in preparation for production in more than 40 mines thruout the state, the association figures show.
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Disarm Mine Superintendent
      Taylorville, Ill., Aug. 19. --(UP)-- First sign of disorder in picketing of coal mines in Christian county where 15,000 miners have gathered to induce local "diggers" to join a wage protest strike, occurred today when miners are reported to have taken a gun from a mine superintendent.
      The incident, it was said, occurred at Peabody mine No. 9 at Langleyville, when pickets appeared there shortly after dawn.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 199
Saturday Evening, August 20, 1932, Page 1
      Gillespie, Ill., Aug. 20. --(UP)-- Belief that it will not be "necessary to "march " on southern Illinois coal mines to induce miners there to join a "strike ", against a recently signed $5 day basic wage scale contract, was expressed at headquarters of "strikers" here today.
      Arthur Hughes, Gillespie, a member of the "strikers" board of strategy, said, that reports from Franklin county indicated that "there is no united opposition" there to a "strike" and that it looks like Franklin county miners can take care of their own situation."
      He added, however, that if mines there continue to function a "march" against southern Illinois will probably be taken next week.
No United Front
      Hughes declared a committee of Gillespie miners, sent to southern Illinois yesterday, returned here early today and reported that while some few mines were operating in Franklin county there was no united front to the opposition to the $5 wage agreement."
      He said that the men had been in West Frankfort and had attended the funeral of Joe Corbett, mine protest leader slain earlier in the week, and that they had conversed with miners in various communities.
      "They said that it looks as tho the mines in Franklin county were being picketed and that the situation there could be taken care of with out assistance from the outside," said Hughes.
      "However, if the mines continue to work, I believe a 'march' will be made on southern Illinois to invite those fellows who are working to come out with us."
Pickets Return Home
      Hughes said that most of the 15,000 pickets who "invaded" Christian county Thursday had returned to their homes today.
      He declared that they had left Taylorville with the belief that Christian county miners, most all of whom are said to have joined the "strike," would be able to handle picketing of any mines which attempt to reopen.
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Make No Attempt to Work
      Galesburg, Ill., Aug. 20. --(UP)-- Five hundred miners from Galesburg, Farmington and other points in the Peoria subdistrict in a caravan of motor cars invaded Alpha In Henry county today and stopped miners from working at the Shulder mine there.
      When part of the morning shift, approximately 50 men, reported for work they found the place surrounded by an overwhelming force of pickets and made no attempt to work.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 200
Monday Evening, August 22, 1932, Page 1
      Taylorville, Ill., Aug. 22. -- (UP) -- "Strike" of Illinois union coal miners, protesting a $5 day basic wage agreement, continued approximately 100 per cent effective in central Illinois today despite attempts of the Peabody Coal company to open four large mines near here this morning.
      Sirens, signifying that "diggins" would attempt to hoist coal blew in all four last night and early today. Altho several hundred armed citizen deputy sheriffs stood ready to give protection to those who wished to work no miners appeared except for picket duty.
      Citizen guards were sworn in for duty at the four mines, located here, at Kincaid, Langleyville and Tovey, yesterday and last night, consisting of farmers from thruout Christian county, and business men here. They assembled here at 5 o'clock this morning and marched to the mine. In addition there were 150 coal company deputies who stood on guard at the mines.
      A picket force of about 1,000 miners from local unions here were also on duty at the mines to turn back "diggers" who appeared for work.
      Activities of the citizen guard was restricted to keeping highways and approaches to mines clear of barriers. There was no interference with picketing.
      The state coal industry appeared today to have reached a stalemate with "strikers" claiming a complete tie-up of six of the state's sub-districts, that three were partly on "strike," that two mines out of 18 were working in another and that the situation in the remaining one was undetermined.
      According to this report, read at a mass meeting in Kincaid yesterday by Tony Novak, Pana, member of the "strikers" policy committee appointed at Benld on August 14, only a few thousand miners out of an approximate state organization of 45,000 are employed.
      These miners, Novak said are working In southern Illinois.
Estimate 25,000 at Work
      Chicago, Aug. 22. -- (UP) --At least 25,000 coal miners were at work today in Illinois mines, according to estimates of the Illinois coal operators' association.
      Officials said that practically all mines in Vermilion, Williamson, Saline, Franklin and Perry counties were working and that some mines in Jackson and Marion counties were at work.
      A number of mines in the northern field and a few in the Belleville district also were reported working. Some eight or 10 additional mines will be ready to start production during the week, it was said.
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      Ziegler, Ill., Aug . 22. --(UP)-- Domtuic Lauranti, 32 year old miner, was shot to death today in a clash between deputy sheriffs and pickets at the Bell & Zoller mines here.
      Seven other pickets were wounded, nine seriously, when the deputies fired Into a group of about 200 pickets and then charged them with clubs and pistols.
      The pickets retreated thru the streets of Ziegler. All available police were called to re-enforce about 50 special deputies sworn in yesterday by Sheriff Browning Robinson when the pickets began assembling at the mines.
      Laurant's body was found near the mine by deputies after the pickets had been dispersed. He had been killed by a revolver shot in the back. His body was held at a local undertaking establishment.
      Plans for an inquest were abandoned when about 500 persons gathered outside the undertaking establishment and became unruly. Sheriff Robinson ordered the inquest postponed and persuaded the crowd to disperse.
      Harry Sukowski, a miner, was treated today for a gunshot wound in the arm and another in the hip. He said he was standing on a street near his home watching the fighting when a stray bullet struck him.
      He said deputies were firing frequently into the crowd as it retreated thru the streets and he believed it was a bullet from one of the deputies' guns which struck him.
      The others wounded were treated for cuts and bruises inflicted by the deputies who wielded clubs. Several received painful scalp wounds, but none was seriously hurt.
      Sheriff Robinson said a complete investigation would be made immediately into the clash, which followed a day and night of disturbances at mass meetings of miners to protest against acceptance of the new $5 wage scale agreement.
      A meeting here last evening was broken up and another at West Frankfort, ten miles away, was terminated by action of deputies and police.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 201
Tuesday Evening, August 23, 1932, Pages 1 & 3
      Benton, III., Aug. 23. --(UP)-- Coal mines in Franklin county, where a skirmish between deputies and mine pickets resulted in the death of one man and injury to several others yesterday, operated unmolested today, while county authorities prepared to repulse an invasion of 25,000 mine pickets from the north.
      Sheriff Robinson and State's Attorney Hart of Franklin county conferred today to outline plans for turning back the "march" which is scheduled to begin at Gillespie tomorrow.
      County authorities were highly concerned today over reports that between 25,000 and 30,000 miners, opposed to the new wage scale, would invade the county to prevent operations of mines.
      In a statement issued jointly by Hart and Robinson, the northern miners were warned that "if 30,000 miners attempt to invade Franklin county they will find 30,000 Franklin county men to keep them out."
      At West Frankfort, where nine representatives of the international union established headquarters for southern Illinois, a statement was issued warning miners against picketing.
      "We want to warn those who would ignore our laws and obligations against picketing," the statement read, "that intimidation and coercion of our members in defiance of the joint contract and our by-laws must be stopped."
      Picketing in Franklin county was at a minimum today, following a wild week end of skirmishes between police and mine pickets. In widely separated sections of the county miners were injured in minor conflicts.
      At Zeigler where Dominic Laurantt, 32, a mine picket, was slain yesterday, there was no violence today. Both shafts of the Bell and Zoller mines worked today with full crews, altho negotiations for an "armistice" had been nearly completed, it was reported.
      Feeling at Zeigler has been intensified by the revocation of the charter of the Bell and Zoller unions by the international union.
      The situation there was somewhat relieved after a conference between three representatives of the international union and county authorities The international representatives agreed to rescind the revocation order providing the membership ceased picketing and returned to work. It was expected the membership would vote upon the proposal today.
      Curtis Mundell, Benton, was elected president of local 4173 at New Orient to fill the vacancy of Pat Ansboury, ousted by John L. Lewis, president of the international union, recently.
      The membership then voted unanimously to continue work and "not to tolerate picketing." The resolution added that we won't need the help of officers to combat picketing, we can handle the situation.
      The inquest into the death of the slain Zeigler miner was set for Thursday. It was originally set for yesterday, but when more than 500 enraged minors gathered about the undertaking establishment, it was decided to postpone the inquiry until feeling subsided.
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      Staunton, Ill., Aug. 23. --(United Press.)-- Heralded as "the greatest" labor march" in American history, a parade of an estimated number of 25,000 "striking" Illinois coal miners will start a picket invasion of southern Illinois coal fields from this small mining town in the south-central part of the state sometime tomorrow.
      The "march," ordered yesterday by the "policy committee" of a miners' group opposed to working under a recently signed wage scale agreement is for the purpose of effecting a "shutdown' of all mines in the southern part of the state and force the negotiating of a new agreement.
      Notice to miners in central and northern Illinois to assemble here tomorrow was sent out yesterday from "strike" headquarters at Gillespie. They were warned to come unarmed not to "even bring a pocketknife" but to have food, bedding, money and their automobiles.
      "This is to be a peaceful invasion," said Arthur Hughes, Gillespie, member of the "strikers" board of strategy, "and we don't want to give anyone a chance to say we carry any kind of weapon."
      The "march" which will include, it is said, several thousand former service men will be made with military precision altho without implements of war.
      Miners will gather in their various communities at 6 o'clock tomorrow morning and start for here where all will assemble and then move on to southern Illinois -- Franklin county is said to be, the first objective -- in orderly fashion.
      According to Dan McGill, Springfield, a large American flag will wave from a truck which will lead the "march."
      "We will march in 'divisions', with each of the state's union subdistricts comprising a 'division' and looking after its own food and bedding," he said.
      McGill said there will be a regular commissary section for the marchers.
      "We will start equipped with provisions for several days," he said. "We will carry bedding and tents and wagon loads of food. Cooking stoves will be carried in trucks and a woman's auxiliary from Gillespie will prepare the food.
      "We expect to start from the "picket line" before noon. The 'picket line' will be wherever we desire to picket. We do not anticipate any trouble."
      McGill's statement "was made in the face of a declaration by southern Illinois officials that there would be an equal number of southern Illinois citizens ready to meet the pickets when they reached that part of the stale.
      "I do not believe they can find that many people in southern Illinois to oppose us " he said.
      Locals in central and northern Illinois met last night and today to plan for their part in the "march." At Springfield three locals voted last night to leave there at 6 a. m. tomorrow. Others acted today. A number of miners' wives will accompany the Springfield "diggers" to cook their food, and to picket mines; it was said, if necessary.
      Decision to "march" on southern Illinois was announced yesterday, on receipts of reports from Zeigler in Franklin county telling of the slaying of a mine picket and the wounding of several others there.
      The shooting, said to have been done by special deputy sheriffs, was denounced by Hughes as a "terrible outrage." He said use of arms against miners should not be countenanced.
      Hughes declared he does not expect trouble when the marchers reach southern Illinois.
      "Our men are determined that Illinois miners shall not work unless they are paid a living wage," he said. "They will leave here unarmed and leaders will allow no drinking or provocating language.
      Hughes expects it will take the pickets several days to complete their work in southern Illinois.
      Defending the "strike" against the wage agreement which was approved by John H. Walker, president of the Illinois District union, and John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers of America, other union leaders and coal operators' at Springfield two weeks ago, McGill said reference to it as a five dollar day basic wage scale is a misnomer.
      "It really is a two dollar basic wage scale for 70 per cent of the miners in the Springfield subdistrict," he said, "as about that percentage of our Springfield miners would make that much.
      "If it actually meant five dollars a day for the tonnage men It would present a different phase."
      The scale provides that "diggers" shall receive 68 cents a ton, a decrease from 91 cents. It is understood that the "strikers" are willing to take a reduction to as low as 82 cents a ton.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 202
Wednesday Evening, August 24, 1932, Page 1
      Coulterville, Ill., Aug. 24. --(UP)-- The caravan of 13,000 miner pickets, "marching" on Franklin county was halted here today by 500 deputy sheriffs, who blocked the highway.
      As the caravan came into sight, deputy sheriffs set up machine guns in the center of the highway, and others holding riot guns, tear gas bombs and pistols lined the highway.
      The "band wagon," carrying the Staunton Municipal band, at the head of the procession, continued moving until they reached a point a few feet from the machine guns.
      Other cars and trucks in the procession came to a quick stop, until the entire 20 mile line of cars was stationary.
      The miners offered no resistance, but when they realized that the highway had been blocked, they began jeering the deputy sheriffs.
      Hundreds of townspeople, who had come, to a point on the highway near the city where the deputies were stationed, were ordered away by the officers
      As the caravan came to an abrupt halt, miners in the fore part of the procession left their cars and ran to the barricade. Deputy sheriffs shouted for them to return to their automobiles. Many of the miners obeyed and returned to their cars, while leaders of the parade held, a hurried conference to decide upon their next move.
      Sheriff Ag Davis, in charge of the deputies, announced to a delegation of miners, "You can't come any further into Perry county; you'd better turn back."
      The only voice of opposition came from a miner who answered the sheriff, "Like hell we will."
      A few minutes later the miners reassembled before the machine gun barricade.
      "We're going thru," they shouted. "It takes more than deputies to stop us."
      Several deputy sheriffs held a hurried conference with Sheriff Davis and a few minutes later, the 100 deputy sheriffs from Franklin county announced they were returning to Franklin county, leaving 200 Perry county deputies on guard.
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By GEORGE SCHUPPE (United Press Staff Correspondent.)
      Staunton, Ill., Aug. 24. -- To the martial tunes of the Staunton Municipal band, 10,000 miner pickets "marched" out of Staunton at 9:55 a. m. today, for an invasion of southern Illinois coal fields, where they hope to stop coal production.
      In 800 automobiles and trucks, led by the Staunton band, the miners were cheering and waving to the thousands of spectators who lined the streets of Staunton.
      Many American flags were draped over the cars and trucks and a large American flag was fastened to the truck bearing the band of 35 pieces.
      Many placards were tacked to the trucks, and banners identifying the various delegations were fastened to the loaded passenger cars.
      Before the "parade of pickets" left, Arthur Hughes, in charge of the Gillespie headquarters of the miners opposed to the new wage scale, announced that there were no weapons "of any kind" in the parade.
      "If we have to fight," Hughes said, "we will use our fists.''
      The assemblage here began early today with the arrival of a delegation of 50 from Tobey, and continued to grow until the leaders of the "march" announced that 10,000 men had arrived to participate in the march.
      A sprinkling of women, and a few children were found in the cars of some of the miners.
      The women were as vigorous as the men in their expressed intention to "get to our brother miners, in Franklin county."
      When the last car left here at 10:30 a. m., a half hour after the Staunton band led the first of the marchers out of town, the last car left , it was estimated that the caravan was 20 miles long.
      Leaders of the expeditionary force said that it would probably require about five hours to make the 100 mile trip to Dowell. Original plans called for only occasional stops long enough to allow other delegations to join the main body.
      The parade wag reported making better than was at first anticipated. It was though the miners would average less than 20 miles an hour because of the slow speed of the trucks in the caravan.
      There was no indication of disorder after the caravan got under way. The 20 mile string of cars stretched out in an orderly manner, and settled down to a steady grind southward.
      Several state highway policemen, ordered to Staunton by chief of the highway state patrol, Walter Moody, assisted in helping the caravan start.
      They were to accompany the caravan for a short distance southward. They said they had not received orders to continue to Dowell, but said that other highway police would probably, keep the highway clear "at least as far as possible."
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 203
Thursday Evening, August 25, 1932, Pages 1 & 3
      Duquoin, III., Aug. 25. --(United Press.)-- Four persons, including two women, were known to have been shot and three others were reported wounded, when the caravan of strikers was attacked by deputies near Mulkeytown last night.
      The wounded were:
      Mrs. Mary Beckabinkis, Auburn, III., shot in the hip
      Mrs. Peter Barorina, Bulpit, III., shot in the head.
      John Williams, Gillespie, Ill., shot thru both jaws, condition serious.
      Leonard Cordie, Auburn, Ill., shot in the foot.
      Three other men were reported by strikers to have been shot, but they could not be located today nor their names learned.
      Approximately 100 persons received treatment for wounds inflicted by clubs or caused by glass when windows of automobiles were smashed by deputies. None was seriously hurt.
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Invaders Carry On
      Duquoin, Ill., Aug. 25. --(United Press.)-- Routed in its first attempt to invade Franklin county to picket coal mines, the army of striking miners from the north reassembled in a field near here today for a possible second assault.
      Leaders gathered approximately 5,000 of the 18,500 union strikers that came down from northern counties last night and held a meeting to consider their next move. Messengers were sent to Pinckneyvllle and Coulterville where other portions of the army had retreated,
      Across the Franklin county line, a few miles east, 800 deputy sheriffs under Sheriff Browning Robinson, waited. Dozens of machine guns had been set up to guard the bridge over the Little Muddy river. The deputies were armed also with shotguns, rifles, pistols and tear gas bombs.
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8,000 Return Home
      Coulterville, Ill.. Aug. 25. --(United Press.)-- Approximately 8,000 of the "strikers" army met here today and decided to return to their homes immediately.
      The men were weary and hungry after a sleepless night and without breakfast, except for coffee boiled over camp fires. Those meeting here voted to refuse a plea from a group at Duquoin to return for a second attempt to enter Franklin county.
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By GEORGE E. SCHUPPE (United Press Staff Correspondent.)
      Duquoin, Ill., Aug. 25. -- Hopelessly beaten in a battle with deputy sheriffs at the Franklin county line, thousands of striking miners retreated toward their homes today across the strife-torn coal fields of southern Illinois.
      Behind them the disorganized horde of striking marchers left a trail of wrecked automobiles and trucks. In Duquoin they left two comrades suffering from buckshot wounds in their arms. Many of them nursed bruised heads and cuts suffered in the battle of the Muddy river.
      Attempts of leaders to reorganize the strikers at Coulterville and Pinckneyville met almost instant failure. Some of the men were angry, ready to go back and fight but most of the 18,500 who joined the march yesterday had suffered all they cared to and wanted only to get back to their homes. Many of them were hungry. Their trucks, filled with food supplies, were among those wrecked in the mad flight after the battle.
      Rumors that several men were killed when Sheriff Browning Robinson and his deputies opened fire at Mulkeytown last night were denied. Many were hurt, however. Six applied for treatments for cuts and bruises at the Duquoin hospital. It was estimated that probably 25 to 100 others applied their own first aid. The two men who were shot received treatment at a doctor's office here.
      The miners organized yesterday in Macoupin county, several counties north of here. Their intention was to disregard Sheriff Robinson's warnings and to march into Franklin county where mines are being operated under the new scale. They are striking for a return to the old scale of $6.10 a day.
      Riding in 1,650 automobiles, trucks, the strikers proceeded southward thru Bond and Clinton counties, then into this. Perry county, where they were stopped twice by deputy sheriffs, warned not to proceed and told that they could not camp for the night at Dowell, in Jackson county, as they had planned.
      The procession, stretching for many miles along the highway, then was headed straight across the eastern border toward Franklin county, the men determining to enter the forbidden territory at once instead of waiting.
      Traveling slowly, the caravan passed thru Duquoin about 6 p. m. and about 8 o'clock, the first automobiles reached the county line. Suddenly, as they drove over a hill, the leaders came face to face with Sheriff Robinson and his army of deputies, estimated at from 300 to 600 men.
      While the procession waited, Robinson conferred with, the strike leaders, told them they could not enter or interfere in any way with their brother union miners who were working in Franklin county under the new scale.
      There was not room at that point for the automobiles to be turned around, so Robinson said the men could drive on to Mulkeytown just across the border line, turn and recross the Muddy river homeward
      There are many versions of what happened after that. In the darkness something happened that started the battle. Some witnesses say the deputies, most of them citizens unused to firearms, shot first. Others say the strikers started the trouble.
      That there was considerable shooting was witnessed by the automobiles which the men drove back thru Duquoin. Many were sprinkled with buckshot. Between 70 and 150 were so badly damaged that their drivers abandoned them. Many were run into ditches in the rush to retreat when the shooting started. A United Press correspondent counted 72 overturned automobiles in a stretch of six miles between here and Mulkeytown early today. Many of them were being stripped, he said, by thieves.
      Scores of the men whose automobiles were wrecked were stranded here with no food, no money, orders to move on and nothing to move in. They did not know what to do next. Many of the automobiles still in running order had broken windshields, smashed out, the owners said, by blackjack wielding deputies. Most of those who were injured were cut by flying glass.
      As the flight began, leaders rushed orders along the lines for the men to drive to the fair grounds at Pickneyville and the ball park at Coulterville, 20 and 32 miles away respectively, to camp there overnight and be ready for a new march this morning. Some who followed the orders were ordered to move on when they reached those towns.
      Some of the miners stopped long enough in their fight to express bitter hatred toward the Franklin county authorities. They claimed the firing was unjustified.
      The authorities, on the other hand, pointed out that they had warned the men repeatedly not to enter Franklin county, which contains one of the richest coal fields in the world. Citizens of Franklin county backed Robinson almost to a man and hundreds of them were in the army waiting last night at Muddy river bridge. Some carried baseball bats. Others had guns. A few had blackjacks. One elderly man was seen tottering about among the deputies with a pistol in one side of his belt and a long knife in the other.
      Robinson maintained his army line this morning along a two-mile front even tho it appeared that the trouble was over. His men searched every automobile crossing the county line.
      Chief Walter Moody of the state police, remained on duty thruout the night near the boundary. He advised every motorist to turn back. A score of his men were stationed in Duquoin and others were in neighboring towns.
      Authorities agreed it was not probable troops would be asked for as they believed the miners all would return home today. Col. R. J. Davis, Carbondale, toured thru the battle area and reported to Adjutant General Carolos Black at Springfield that all the men were "retreating in the general direction from which they came."
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By LELAND L. CHESLEY (United Press Staff Correspondent)
      Pinckneyville, Ill., Aug. 25. -- Charges that Franklin county authorities deliberately led them into a "machine gun trap" at the Little Muddy river bridge were made today by retreating miners who stopped at the Pinckneyville fairgrounds to rest on their northward flight from the scene of last night's battle.
      "They intentionally misdirected us, led us to the bridge near Mulkeytown; then opened fire without giving us a chance," declared Herman Koch of Coulterville, one of several thousand miners encamped near here this morning.
      Koch charged that when the 18,500 protest marchers were stopped yesterday here and at Duquoin it was part of a plot to lead their caravan of 1650 automobiles to the spot where Sheriff Browning Robinson and 800 deputies were waiting. While the halt was made, he charged, deputies took the strike leaders from the head of the procession and forced them far back along the line, leaving only men who did not know the roads in the leading automobiles.
      "We had intended to camp last night at Dowell, then to enter Franklin county this morning," said Koch, "but they misdirected us; so that before we realized where we were we were crossing the Franklin county line and heading at night straight toward the machine gun trap."
      Koch said that as soon as the men had rested efforts again would be made to reorganize them and start a new march into Franklin county where mines are being operated under the new $5 a day wage scale. The strikers want the old $6.10 scale renewed.
      The Coulterville miner was riding in the seventh automobile of the procession when the fight started. Seven cars farther hack was Harry Critchfield of Tilden, who abandoned his automobile and left it in a ditch after deputies broke all the windows.
      John Kiska of Riverton said he was riding in the fifth car.
      "We were driving slowly when we reached the county line," said Kiska. "There we were met by about 75 deputies who motioned us to come on thru. When we got about two miles inside the line, the deputies called on us to halt. We stopped and about 75 more deputies came running toward us from a corn field. They told us to drive on to a filling station, then to turn around and go back.
      "We reached the station, near the river bridge, and started turning. Then somebody fired a shot. It seemed like all the deputies were shooting at us. Several hundred of us got out of our cars and ran. The deputies shot at us. Most of us ran back to get in other cars, but as we ran the deputies caught some of us and beat us with pick handles. Then the deputies went to the abandoned cars and started breaking the windows. We had to leave the cars standing there."
      Leroy Bartley, Tilden, said he saw two men and a woman shot by the deputies. The woman, he said, was hit in the hip. One man, he said, was shot in the neck, another in the back. His statements could not be verified.
      Koch and Critchfield charged that many of the deputies who had fought against them were their own union brothers, men who desire, to work under the $5 scale and want no interference from the strikers who live in other counties.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 204
Friday Evening, August 26, 1932, Page 1
      Gillespie, Ill., Aug. 25. --(UP)-- A second picket miner invasion of southern Illinois, where armed deputies routed an army of 20,000 marchers Wednesday night and forced them to return to central and northern Illinois, will be attempted next week, according to announced plans at headquarters of "striking" miners here today.
      Meetings which will be held in various cities of central and northern Illinois in the next few days will decide the date for a second invasion.
      According to the announcement here the plans of the strikers call for a renewal of efforts to persuade Franklin and other southern Illinois counties to join in a strike against a new wage agreement thru the dispatch of flying squadrons" to the coal fields where miners have gone to work under the agreement.
      The announcement declared that miners in Peoria , Springfield and other centers would hold meetings and select special men to resume the campaign to effect a shutdown of mines in southern Illinois.
      The announcement also states that Oklahoma, Indiana and Kentucky miners had sent word they were preparing to come to Illinois to help "diggers" here in a drive against Franklin county.
      The announcement did not disclose further details as to how the miners from other states will join in the drive and did not reveal where they would come from in those states.
      No decision, it was said, has been made as to whether the marchers will go armed as "just with bare fists."
      Several thousand picket miners, the announcement said, will participate in the next "invasion."
      They will be placed , it was said , at "strategic points" to avoid difficulties encountered in the last move."
      Most of the marchers who participated in this week's southern Illinois invasion had returned, weary and worn, to their homes today, many minus their automobiles and many others with the windows in their cars shattered.
      So far as known no one was killed at the "battle of Mulkeytown," just across the Big Muddy river and inside Franklin county.
      The "strike" leaders yesterday claimed eight to ten miners were slain at Mulkeytown where Franklin county deputies routed the marchers Wednesday night and that 22 others from Zeigler and West Frankfort had been "massacred" when they attempted to join the pickets, they said today that it appeared there were no fatalities unless some of those wounded should die.
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Bomb Demolishes Mine Leader's Home
      Taylorville, Ill., Aug. 26. --(UP)-- The home of Raymond Tombozzi, "strike" mine leader, was bombed here today. The front porch ot the building was demolished but none was hurt.
      The bombing is the third In this region in the last few weeks.
      Early this week a filling station at Pawnee and owned by John Groh, a "striker," was blown up. Previous to that two unoccupied miners' homes at Kincaid were destroyed by dynamite. Approximately 200 miners worked at the Taylorville and Langleyville Peabody Coal company mines today.
      The Taylorville mine worked for the first time since 15,000 picket miners besieged Christian county mines last week. About 70 men are said to have reported.
      The Langleyville mine functioned with more than a hundred men working. It hoisted more than a thousand tons of coal yesterday.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 205
Saturday Evening, August 27, 1932, Page 1
      Springfield, Ill., Aug. 27. --(UP)-- Plans for a second picket miner invasion of southern Illinois coal fields, aided by volunteer contingents from Indiana, Oklahoma and Kentucky, went forward in central and northern Illinois today as local unions in those sections checked their membership to ascertain whether an invasion this week had resulted in fatalities.
      According to tentative plans the next invasion will be composed only of several thousand "selected" pickets and it is probable that steps toward selecting representatives from, the Springfield sub-district will be taken at a mass meeting of miners in that section today.
      The meeting is also tor the purpose of affording an opportunity to check up on miners who have failed to return from southern Illinois. Approximately 30 Springfield men have not returned, according to leaders. Gillespie, and Taylorville sub-districts also report a number of men missing.
      While some belief that the missing men may have been killed when the pickets encountered machine gun fire near Mulkeytown in Franklin county Wednesday night was expressed, it was generally thought that many of them are still in southern Illinois awaiting repairs on their automobiles wrecked at Mulkeytown or are held in jails.
      Meanwhile leaders of the protest movement against the new wage scale in other cities that participated in the invasion began preparation for the second "march," the purpose of which is to persuade miners in Franklin and other southern Illinois counties there to join a "strike" against, a reduced wage scale contract.
      Mass meetings were held in several cities yesterday and reports indicate that some of the protesting miners are anxious to renew their drive against the southern portion of the state.
      Miners of Kentucky, Indiana and Oklahoma have sent word that they will send men to join in the move.
      Christian county miners held a mass meeting at Taylorville yesterday. Earl Baker, chairman of the county contingent in the southern invasion urged a second invasion.
      "We didn't get thru to Franklin county bodily, but our spirit penetrated," he said.
      Harry Lowe, chairman of the meeting, declared that no attempt to interfere with the miners returning to work in Christian county would be made as long as the men were accompanied to and from the mines by deputy sheriffs.
      Headquarters of the strikers at Gillespie declared yesterday that '"our civil rights of peaceful assembly and picketing shall be recognized if it takes all winter." It is believed that the date for the next invasion will be set tomorrow at Gillespie.
      Thirty-two miners, several of them leaders of a recent successful "march" on Taylorville and who led the march on southern Illinois, were indicted yesterday by a Christian county grand jury on charges of inciting a riot.
      Joseph Pecek of Benld, said to be chairman of the strikers' policy committee and the "mystery " man who was the "general"" in command of the Taylorville and southern Illinois marches, was among those indicted. Others included Dan McGill and Byron Humphries, both of Springfield, and D. C. Webb, in command of a camp of bonus marchers near Springfield.
      The men were indicted on charges preferred by officials of the Peabody Coal company. It is alleged the miners disarmed two of the company's employes as they passed the picket lines.
      Tho no arrests had been made Judge Franklin R. Dove of the circuit court fixed bail in each case at $500.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 205
Saturday Evening, August 27, 1932, Page 2
Non-union Men's Homes Bombed.
      Sullivan, Ind., Aug. 27. -- Dynamite attacks on the homes of two non-union miners, Cyril Wonders and Herschel Morley, both of whom have been employed at the Starburn mine, near Shelburn, were reported. The report said none was injured and damage was not extensive. Dynamite sticks were used.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 207
Tuesday Evening, August 30, 1932, Page 1
      Taylorville, Ill., Aug. 30. -- Picket lines around two mines of the Peabody Coal company at Langley and Hewittville, near here were increased today with the arrival of miners from Pana and Nokomis who sought to aid local pickets in persuading the few men at work to quit and join the protest movement against the new contract.
      Both mines continued to operate, however, but only with small crews. The total men working was estimated at 100 men and some of them were said to have been brought here from Springfield headquarters of the coal company.
Today Is Deadline.
      Peabody company officials had set today as the deadline for striking miners to return to work. If they returned the men were to be forgiven for leaving the mines two weeks ago following a "march" on Christian county by protesting miners from other sections of central Illinois.
      Officials declared today that the mines would continue in operation as long as any men come to work. W. C. Argust , general superintendent of the company's mines in this county, said that he could bring 10,000 union men from Illinois and other states who would be willing to go to work immediately.
Most Are Worthy Men.
      "But we don't think that would be a good move," Argust said. "Most of our men are good men, men with families and homes. We wouldn't want to deprive them of work indefinitely if such a procedure can possibly be avoided."
      Meanwhile, miners thruout central and some sections of southern Illinois planned to send representatives to a conference of "protest " leaders at Gillespie on Thursday. Each local union participating in the protest move will be allowed to send three members to the conference.
      Plans for another invasion of Franklin county will be among the many important items to be discussed at the conference, according to Arthur Hughes, Gillespie, in charge of district protest headquarters. He said that the general public and the press would be excluded from the conference.
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      Benton, Ill., Aug. 30. --(UP)-- Franklin county took on the aspect of prosperity, as the pay checks for 3500 coal miners found their way into circulation -- I he first pay since March.
      Part payments on long standing grocery bills, as well as other debts, were made by the men who returned to work under the new $5 basic wage scale.
      With the increased money in circulation came satisfaction. The result is that nearly all miners in the county, where about one-fourth of the membership of the state union reside, have given up any opposition that they may have had toward the conditions provided In the new wage scale.
      Consequently the citizenry of Franklin county is growing to view with disfavor dally the proposed "second invasion" of the county by northern miners who hope to close the mines in this county.
      Opposition to a "second invasion" is becoming general in nature. Already victorious in one encounter with invading miner-pickets, the general opinion of county authorities is that the citizenry will rally to repel any other invasion.
      During the past two weeks, ten of the county's principal mines have begun operations. Production from these mines neared normal today. Mine officials estimated that the normal production for the county would be reached by the end of this week.
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The Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
54th Year Number 208
Wednesday Evening, August 31, 1932, Page 3
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Gillespie News, Gillespie, Illinois
Wednesday, August 31, 1932
      The largest procession of miners that ever passed over the roads of Illinois headed for Franklin County on Wednesday of last week.
      Thousands and thousands of automobiles and trucks lined the highways leading from Springfield, Nokomis, Pana, Hillsboro, Mt. Olive, Staunton, Gillespie, Benld, Belleville and other places.
Staunton Labor Temple photo       All of this great cavalcade met at Staunton [Staunton Labor Temple] where the procession was formed before the march was taken up. Every man was warned that under no circumstances would he be allowed to carry arms, not even a pocket knife. This mission was to be one of peace and their intent was to persuade the miners of Franklin and Williamson counties to cease work and join with them in an earnest endeavor to try and secure a reasonable wage for their work.
      Everything necessary for several days stay was taken including commissaries, ambulances, first aid men to look after any one that became sick or injured.
      They had received notice from the sheriff of Franklin County that they would not be allowed to enter that county, but this did not deter them from their peaceful mission. They were confident that if the matter was properly explained to the Franklin and Williamson county miners that they would join their protesting strike against the recently signed $5 basic wage scale.
      The great procession of miners arrived in Perry County. Intent on stopping for the night, they were directed to proceed along a certain route. It was along this route that they were led into a trap that had been planned by the sheriff of Franklin County and his thousands of special deputies that had been sworn in to try and keep the miners out of Franklin County.
      After the miners had been led into a trap, having been directed over a wrong road, they were met by a barrage of machine gun fire from each side of the road, and the highway became a living hell. Autos were disabled, tires punctured, holes shot through the bodies and radiators of the of the autos, while the men taken by surprise deserted their autos, and ran for the corn fields and other places in order to save their lives. Such a sight was never before witnessed in Illinois and we hope that it will never be again.
      In Gillespie last Wednesday night the Main street was filled with people, women and children crying as the meager news came drifting in, that hundreds had been killed and many more wounded. The first reports brought tears to the eyes of nearly everyone as they thought of a husband or son that was in the big procession, and it was not until the next morning that the real news brought by some of the returning miners that there was no one killed but many were injured by shots, broken glass and otherwise.
      Perhaps the saddest accident was that of John Williams, who resides with his parents in the north part of this city. He was shot through the mouth, his teeth knocked out and his jaw bone shattered. He is now in the Litchfield hospital and is gradually improving although it will be a long time before he recovers. He is a nephew of sheriff Frank Fries of Carlinville.
      The men deserted their autos, and were not allowed to enter the county to get them. Later they were pushed across the county line out of Franklin County by the sheriff and his deputies and were later recovered by their owners, many of them in a dilapidated condition. Many cars, it is stated, were wrecked beyond repair.
      One of the strangest accounts that we have heard of the terrible affair is given by Joe Pecik, President of Local No. 2219:
the account follows
      "Just as we entered Perry County, about a quarter mile from Pinckneyville, we were stopped by deputy sheriffs who were armed threatening death if the men proceeded. After considerable persuasion the men were permitted to go on.
      Further in Perry County a short distance from Pinckneyville, we were stopped by another posse of deputy sheriffs made up of boys 15 to 18 years of age. They obviously were very resolute and determined, stating that no one could cross a black line drawn on the highway. They apparently showed considerable nervousness in handling of their guns. One of the boys made mention of the fact that he was not a willing deputy, but that he was forced into service under penalty of a jail sentence and a $200.00 fine.
      Traffic was held up three and a half hours, after which state police came up and in a threatening manner, issued orders that all get off the highway, in the meantime swinging machine guns in a threatening manner.
      The miners were finally granted permission to continue, to their later sorrow. The caravan proceeded through Pinckneyville, through Duquoin without interruption, but with occasional machine gun armed deputies of state police scattered along the route.
      Outside of Duquoin, about 3 miles, at where there is a 'Y' in the highway, one fork of the 'Y' leading into Dowell was blockaded by a deputy with a machine gun and several more deputies armed with pistols. There were about were about six or eight more deputies armed with rifles and pistols standing at the left of the road.
      Instead of permitting us to proceed to Dowell, as originally intended, we were shunted off to the left into Franklin County. As we got half or three-quarters of a mile across the Big Muddy river, which is the county line of Franklin County, and where the road made a slight incline, the caravan was fired upon. Machine guns blazed all around us. The firing continued for about five minutes, causing general chaos. Some cars were fortunate enough to swing around and turn back with wind shields shattered and bullet-ridden, some containing bleeding miners. The wanton mess of the act caused everyone to rush from their cars to save themselves from being riddled. Many cars were completely abandoned. There were some large trucks hurriedly vacated.
      The general stampede of men, running for their lives, caused many of them to leave their cars and trucks. As I left the truck in which I was riding, I heard a rattle of shots, and I was going through the cornfields, I heard the whiz of bullets about my head. I later returned to the highway to assist the lifting of cars around sufficiently to make room for some of the returning cars. Finally I found myself across the line into Perry County. There I grasped the side of of a fellow miner's car and clung to it until we got into Duquoin.
      The miners made a heroic attempt to dash across the Perry County line. On re-entering Perry County the state highway police, plentifully armed with machine guns, pistols and rifles, used every means of intimidation on the miners, telling them to move on and to keep moving and not to stop in Duquoin.
      The cars entering Duquoin, were considerable stampeded by being ordered through through the traffic in various directions. Some of the wounded, fortunate enough to get into Duquoin, were refused treatment at the hospital, until miners' officials of Duquoin had the men taken care of by assuming responsibility for payment of the hospital bill.
      In Duquoin, a general disturbance reigned. Some of the Duquoin people were good enough and had courage enough to give the miners permission to stay overnight in the ball park. There was also a tourist camp thrown open to the miners. But armed deputies went to these places and ordered the miners to vacate them immediately, despite the consent of owners.
      We could do nothing for those unfortunate miners who had been wounded because of the steady advance of the posse with their machine guns, sawed-off shotguns, and baseball bats. They drove us, regardless of some of our fallen comrades, out of Franklin County."
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