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Williamson County, Illinois
Featuring Coal Mining
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Herrin Massacre
June 21 & 22, 1922
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A compilation of newspaper articles
1922 June July August September October November December
1923 January February March April May   July

Coal Age Vol. 21, No. 26; June 29, 1922
Coroner's Jury Lays Deaths of Strike Breakers in
Herrin Massacre to Acts of Company Officials
      Many of the essential facts with respect to the massacre of a score of miners at the strip pit of the Southern Illinois coal Co. near Herrin, Williamson Co, Ill., by striking union miners and sympathizers may never be known. The operators of this mine, a steam shovel pit, were engaged in an attempt to load out coal, previously uncovered, with labor not members of the United Mine Workers. They had armed guards furnished by an agency in Chicago and workers who were members of the Steam Shovelmen's Union. The force at the mine included, besides the guards and steam-shovel workers, a crew of cooks and other helpers that made the outfit self contained.
      The disturbance began Wednesday morning, June 21. State Senator Sneed, a union coal miner, wired John Lewis: "Is there an agreement by the American Federation of Labor that the Steam Shovelmen's Union has the right to man shovels, strip and load coal? Some men here claim they have jurisdiction granted by the mining department of the American Federation of Labor. J. W. Tracy, of Chicago, district representative of the Steam Shovelmen's Union, is furnishing men to load coal in this district. We do not believe such an agreement exists. Wire answer after investigation if agreement exists and have the proper authorities stop the steam shovelmen scabbing on union coal miners."
Lewis Advises Treatment as Outlaws
      Lewis' reply, which follows, was posted about the town on Wednesday:
      "In reply to your wire of the 18th, the Steam Shovelmen's Union was suspended from affiliation with the American Federation of Labor some years ago. It was also ordered suspended from the mining department of the American Federation of Labor at the Atlantic City convention.
      "We now find that this outlaw organization is permitting its membership to act as strikebreakers in strip mines in Ohio.
      "This organization is furnishing steam-shovel engineers to work under armed guard with strikebreakers.
      "It is not true that any agreement exists by and between this organization and the mining department or any other branch of the American Federation of Labor, permitting it to work under such circumstances.
      "Two of our representatives have taken this question up with officers of the Steam Shovelmen's Union and have failed to secure any satisfaction.
      "Representatives of our organization are justified in treating this crowd as an outlaw organization and in viewing its members in the same light as they would view any other common strikebreakers."
      According to press reports of the findings of the coroner's jury on Sunday, June 25, two union miners were killed on Wednesday night, June 21, when "they visited the mine to make an investigation on behalf of the union." Whether these men were killed in the battle that raged all of Wednesday night, or prior to the open warfare, is not disclosed. There was an all-night fusillade fired on the workers besieged in coal cars and behind piles of coal and dirt, in part at least cut off from food and water. None of the besieged were killed in this attack and while exchanging shots with the strikers. (the wires were cut that evening) the superintendent of the strip mine, McDowell, was in telephone communication with his principals in Chicago and with Colonel Hunter of the state militia, who appears to have been at Marion.
      Mr. Lester, the operator of the property, was unable to interest the Governor or other high officials of the state or the state militia in sending help to the besieged men, although, according to his statements, he made many efforts by telephone in that direction. No help was sent, each state official who could act now saying that he depended on the word of Sheriff Thaxton that there would be no trouble, that he had the situation well in hand. Thaxton it was who was "called to Carbondale on urgent business" when the fight began. He is a union miner and running for election to a higher county office.
      Some time Thursday morning the workers in the pit hoisted a white flag and surrendered. Up to this point it had been industrial warfare, honest fighting with two casualties, both on the attacking side -- a mob, variously reported at from 1,000 to 5,000. strikers against not more than 50 strikebreakers.
      After the surrender, however, it was no longer honorable warfare, if such there be, but wanton massacre. Disarmed and tied in bunches the strikebreakers Were marched down the road and killed in cold blood. Shot, stabbed, clubbed and hanged, they were treated as "common strikebreakers." The bodies of 19 of their number were collected, and numerous wounded were taken to Herrin. There are many yet unaccounted for who either escaped or whose bodies have not been found.
      After the massacre, the Governor, Len Small, who had been attending his trial at Waukegan, for misusing State funds, mobilized a regiment of militia in Chicago, but left them there.
      On Thursday, the Illinois Coal Operators' Association wired Frank Farrington as follows:
      "Word comes to us that automobile loads of men are going from mine to mine in Southern Illinois and notifying company men and mine bosses who are in charge of properties that they must stop work in forty-eight hours. We are notifying the Governor and shall direct individual companies to give similar notification to the sheriffs in the several counties with respect to these threats. Meanwhile we are anxious to know what you as the executive head of the miners' organization in this state can and will do to prevent the possibility of any recurrence of such demonstration as occurred yesterday at the mine of the Southern Illinois Coal Co. Illinois operators are shocked at such an occurrence following twenty-five years of joint collective bargaining with the miners in Illinois."
      A similar wire was sent to the Governor. At the same time F. C. Honnold, secretary-treasurer of the operators' associations, issued the following statement:
      "The miners' riot of yesterday at the steam-shovel mine of the Southern Illinois Coal Co. may possibly center the thought of the public on the fact that there does exist an absolute monopoly in coal-mine labor in this state.
      "The mine in question is a so-called strip or steam-shovel mine in which the overlying earth is removed by large revolving steam shovels. The coal thus uncovered is then loaded directly into mine cars.
      "Certificated miners are not in consequence required at such mines. The operation of the steam shovels is done by members of the Steam Shovelers' Union, such additional men as are required for loading the coal, where it is handled by hand, being only common unskilled manual laborers such as might work on the highways or in the fields, or anywhere else.
      "Regardless of these conditions and of the further fact that the owners of this property have repeatedly asked the appropriate authorities for protection of their plant and were finally compelled to provide their own guards, the existing labor monopoly in the state, represented by the organized miners, assaulted the plant and its workmen and as a result several men have been killed.
      "A shaft or slope mine -- one where men have to be carried underground to work -- requires under our state law that men so employed must have a certificate of competency. The issue of these certificates is entirely under the control of the United Mine Workers. As a result no shaft mine in the State of Illinois can even start to work. If men were imported from another state, even though they were skilled and carried a certificate or other evidence of having worked in mines elsewhere, they would none the less have to submit to an examination by the Examining Board, regarding whose qualifications the state code reads as follows:
      " 'No person shall be appointed such miners' examining commissioner who has not had at least five years' practical and continuous experience as a coal miner and who has not been actually engaged in coal mining as a miner in the State of Illinois continuously for twelve months next preceding his appointment. . . .'
      "There is in consequence no chance of any member of this board being other than a union miner.
      "Illinois mines are today idle because Illinois miners will not agree to a conference for the purpose of discussing a new working agreement and scale of wages. Repeated requests have been made by the operators for such conference. The published demands of the miners which they insist must be granted before they will return to work would mean an increase in the cost of coal at mines by about $1 per ton. The Illinois coal operators believe that mine wages should be reduced to an extent that would permit of the reduction in previous cost of coal by approximately $1 per ton. Even such a decrease in the rates of pay which would permit such a reduction in the cost of coal at the mines would still enable the miners to earn in their admittedly shorter work year as much or more than is earned by workmen in other industries."
      The verdict of the coroner's jury reads:
      "We, the jury, find from the evidence that the deaths of decedents were due to acts direct and indirect of officials of the Southern Illinois Coal Co.
      "We recommend that an investigation be conducted for the purpose of fixing the blame personally on individuals responsible."
      The only man named in the verdict is a dead man, McDowell, the superintendent, who is charged with the murder of a union miner. The others came to their death at the hands of parties unknown. A sample of the testimony, taken from a press report, is as follows:
      "You don"t know who did the shooting, do you?" asked Coroner William A. McGowan.
      "No, sir," replied the witness, a Marion policeman; "I don't know anything about it." That was the substance of his testimony and of those who followed him.
Wrecked Sream Shovel
                  Pacific & Atlantic Photos
The Ruins Of One Of The Steam Shovels
      Destruction caused by a bomb said to have been placed by the strikers during the Williamson County massacre, in which twenty-one strike breakers are reported to have been killed.
Wrecked Sleeping Cars
                  Pacific & Atlantic Photos
Wrecked Sleeping Cars
      Showing the twisted metal work of the cars in which the non-union workers lived at the mine at Herrin, lll.
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Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
Thursday Evening, June 27, 1922, Page 4
Victims in Herrin Hospital Menaced
(By the United Press)
      Herrin, Ill., June 27. -- Guards may be thrown around the hospital where 12 survivors of the Herrin massacre are recovering from their injury. Reports that the wounded men are in danger of their lives have been received by authorities. Investigators believe that members of the mob are afraid that several of the wounded men "knew too much."
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Marion Semi-Weekly Leader, Marion, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 374, June 30, 1922, Page 1
Southern Illinois Coal Mine
Also referred to as the "Lester Strip Mine"
Owned by William J. Lester
Strip Mine
Photo by Chicago Tribune                  
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Superintendent C. K. McDowell is Charged with the Death of J. Henderson.
      The jury summoned by Coroner William McCown to inquire into the death of the 21 men who lost their lives, as a result of the battle between the union miners and strikebreakers at. the Lester mine last week placed the blame of the entire affair upon the shoulders of the officials of the Southern Illinois Coal Company. The verdict of the jury was to the effect that all the men except Jordy Henderson came to their death at the hands of unknown parties. In the case of Henderson, the jury found that he was shot and killed by C. K. McDowell, mine superintendent who was later killed by the mob.
      At the inquest held in the Herrin City Hall Sunday afternoon, there were few present besides witnesses and newspapermen. The coroner's jury was composed of the following men: Joe Haninger, Marion, foreman, John Arms, Johnston City; Robert Clem, Herrin; Philip Noaks, Carterville; Louis Gibbons, Carterville and Thomas Thorn, Herrin. The following statement was made a part of the verdict: "We the jury find that the deaths of the decedents were due to the acts direct and indirect of the the officials of the Southern Illinois Coal Company. We recommend that an investigation be conducted for the purpose of fixing the blame personally upon the individuals responsible."
      The coroner and the Jury visited the Herrin hospital to receive the statements of the non-union men wounded by the strikers who were unable to attend the inquest. Allen P. Findley of 6304 North 4th street, Chicago told, in part as follows:
      "I am a construction engineer, but on this job I was employed as time keeper of the guards for Marcus De Laney. I came to the mine a week ago last Tuesday. There were 26 guards in the camp. I worked in the office most of the time, in fact I slept near the office. I wished to leave the mine and told McDowell so. He told me that I would probably be shot if I attempted to leave. I took it that he meant what he said. He told me, I do not know but that it was true, that the guards in the camp were furnished by the insurance company. I do not believe that there was a machine gun in camp, but there was one automatic rifle. Most of the guards were armed with rifles revolvers and rot guns. Most of the men in camp were apparently good law abiding citizens tho of course some of them probably were not. I did not know what I was coming into and I don't think the other boys did. Yes, there were shots fired about the camp before the 21st. I do not remember the exact date but it was some time prior to the shooting Wednesday when a truck load of men coming into the mine was fired upon from a farm house on the road. Two shots were fired but it might have been that they were fired by someone hunting, that I can not say. Later McDowell came to me near the office and said, 'Is that a man standing over there,' pointing toward the detour in the road. I sad, 'No I don't believe it is," but I knew it was a man. I thot I could give him a chance to escape one way or the other. McDowell said to me, 'I believe it as a man' and he brot his gun to his shoulder and fired. The figure in the road fell and I did not see it any more. McDowell was a pretty good shot.. Some time after that we saw two men watching the mine from a distance. We could see their beads sticking up. McDowell tired at them and they threw up, their arms and disappeared. They did not have any guns for their hands were empty. Yes, the other boys in the camp wanted to leave too. I expect that I was the cause of one fellow going because I could not pay his train fare to Chicago without orders from DeLaney. The guards were paid $5 a day and board. Practically all of the guards were in the bunch captured by the miners. There were about 56 men at the mine."
      Findley was wounded three times, one bullet going thru the right foot, one in the left side and another in the left arm. He was operated on in the hospital and the bullets removed from his body. His wife from Chicago is now with him at the hospital and he will recover.
      Thomas Fleming, aged 30, of Chicago was the next to speak as a witness. He said: "I was employed on this job as a track layer laborer or as a waiter. The first two days I was at the mine I didn't do much of anything but the third day McDowell wanted to make me a guard. I refused. I did not fire any shots. I was told that there was no trouble here when I came and that there was not going to be any trouble."
      Fleming was shot thru the hip, the bullet entering on the left side and passing thru the right hip. He gave his address at 339 North Central Park Boulevard, Chicago.
      E. H. Renaud, aged 40, of 221 East 44th street, Chicago, told the jury as follows:
      "I was sent here by the George Betrand Commissary Company to take charge of the commissary for a steam shovel gang. I had been at the mine a week. I wanted to leave, I tried to go with the truck that went after men on the morning, of the shooting but they told me that there would not be room for me coming back. I did not tell them that I did not intend to come back. There was one machine gun in camp. I saw one of the union men with it after we were captured. There were 51 men in the camp the morning of the capture. There were between $3000 and $4000 worth of provisions in camp.
      Fleming was shot n the leg and will probably recover.
      Ed Green, aged 40, of 1203 West Madison street, Chicago spoke as follows: "I was a fireman on the steam shovel. I have been at the mine since it started work. I understood that no coal was to come out of the mine. I saw the men bring the guns and ammunition into camp. I saw a strange looking gun on the last night in camp that I had not seen before. It may have been a machine gun but I don't know. I wanted to leave and I refused to dig the coal. McDowell said I would be shot either by the guards or by union strikers If I tried to-get away. When the shooting started I heard McDowell say 'Don't shoot till you see a man, then give it to them." About 10 or 11 o'clock Wednesday night the firing ceased. It began again about 5 o'clock next morning. We surrendered and marched out under a white flag. To my knowledge not a man was hit in the pit. We had not had breakfast when we were captured There were 47 men taken out. I could not identify any of the party that took us. After they marched us into the woods, they ordered us to lineup. I have heard since that they then told us to 'beat it' but I did not hear it at the time. We never did come to a line before they began firing."
      Green was shot in the leg and will recover. He said that on the occasion of the visit of Col. Hunter and his party to the mine that he waited for the party to come back by the shovel after they went thru the pit in order to ask for protection out of the camp but the party left camp from the opposite side and did not return.
      The wounded men in the hospital all seamed to be in a cheerful frame of mind and talked freely to the visitors. Upon leaving, members of the coroner's jury, mostly union miners, shook hands with the wounded men and expressed their hopes that they would soon recover.
      Other witnesses heard at the city hall were Policeman William Thornton of Marion, Col. Samuel N. Hunter, Claude Holmes, Marion taxi driver, J. H. Henderson, B. C. Hamlin, Chester Parsons, Guy Kelley, all employees at the Coal Belt Power House, Nathan Huff of Marion, William Burton, Herrin Salesman, W. J. Harmon, Herrin merchant, Eliza Cash, A. G. Storme, O. A. Jenkins, undertakers, C. E. Anderson, Arbitrator state industrial commission, Noah Harrell employe at power house, John Herrin of Herrin, J. L. Bradley, Marion constable. E. H. Carvll, Marion man who assisted the undertakers in handling the bodies and Robert Herring, Herrin Chief of Police. Col. Hunter told of his visit with Officer Thornton to the mine where McDowell agreed to disarm the guards and promised to punish them by discharging them if they had stopped anyone on the public road. Claude Holmes told of his being held up on the road at night by the guards who handled some of his party roughly and ordered them to leave. Other witnesses knew very little, none of them being able to give any light as to how the men were actually killed or as to the identity of members of the mob. The inquest was adjourned while the funeral procession with the body of Joe Pitkawscs, union miner killed In battle, passed by the city hall after which the inquiry was continued.
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Bodies of the Union Miners Killed in Mine War Were Laid to Rest at Herrin.
      The funerals of Jordy Henderson and Joe Pitkawsios, the two Herrin union miners who died in the war with the strikebreakers near Herrin were held Saturday and Sunday, Henderson being buried Saturday and Pitkawsios on Sunday.
      The funeral of Henderson the first striker to die was held at the home of Charles Green, 913 North Thirteenth street, who served in the Canadian army in France with Henderson. The services were under the auspices of the Herrin Fraternal Order of Eagles .and officials of the United Mine Workers were present. The Rev. William McCoy, pastor of the Presbyterian church of Herrin officiated.
      The crowd that gathered at the Herrin cemetery was estimated at 4000. The procession was led by a band of twenty pieces followed by more than 2000 men on foot. Next came the white hearse. The pall bearers walked beside the hearse. Then came a row of automobiles that stretched over a mile in length. The body was buried in the Herrin cemetery.
      Funeral services for Joe Pftkawsios was held Sunday afternoon at the home of the young miner's parents, Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Pitkawsios with the Rev. I. E. Lee, pastor of the First Baptist church in charge. The other Protestant ministers of Herrin also took part. A trio composed of Reverends E. F. Goadfeltey, William McCoy and S. F. Sjainhower sang two selections.
      The honorary pall bearers were representatives of each local of the U. M. W. of A of Herrin while the acting pall bearers were fellow members of the deceased In the Herrin Lithuanian lodge. The band again headed the funeral procession and thousands of men followed on foot and in automobiles.
      There were eighty automobiles in the line by actual count and the crowd at the Catholic cemetery where the body was laid to rest was estimated at 2000. About twenty men marched behind the hearse carrying wreaths of flowers to lay upon the grave of the dead miner.
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Before Leaving County Tells of Efforts for Peace by Law Abiding Citizenry.
      Before Colonel Sam Hunter returned to Springfield, he made the following statement to one of the press associations:
      "I am leaving the scene of the recent riot today, conscious and satisfied in my own mind that I performed my whole duty in so far as it was within my ability to do so. I advised and pleaded with everyone whom I thot could be of assistance in averting what occurred on June 28 at the strip mine of the Southern Illinois Coal Company.
      "There are many good citizens of Marion and Herrin who labored and worked equally as hard as I did to prevent the outbreak. To these high-minded citizens the county, the state and the nation should be grateful for their untiring efforts to suppress mob violence, and to prevent the destruction of life and property.
      "Williamson county should not be wrongfully pictured or credited for the unlawful acts of afrienzied mob. What has occurred should serve as a warning to civil officials and the general public to be on the alert to prevent any possible occurrence."
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Sixteen Unidentified Bodies Buried In Potter's Field at Herrin Sunday Morning..
      Sixteen graves in the "potter's field" of the Herrin cemetery, each marked only by the word, "Died, June 22, 1922," contain the unknown dead of Williamson County's labor war. The bodies were buried Sunday morning in graves dug by union miners while the ministers of Herrin offered and a song for the dead.
      A trio made up of Reverends Lee, Baptist pastor, S. F. Spanhower, Christian pastor and Rev. Cloadfelley, Methodist minister sang at the grave and each in turn said a prayer. The bodies were removed from the temporary morgue and placed in caskets by the Herrin undertakers and carried in their hearses to the cemetery Sunday morning, no more of them having been Identified.
      Howard Hoffman, died in the Herrin Hospital Saturday afternoon, making a total of 21 who died as a result of the mine trouble. Hoffman's body was claimed by relatives and is still being held at Herrin waiting further word from them. The following is the record kept for Identification of the men from the strip mine who were killed in the riot:
No. 1. C. K. McDowell, mine superintendent.
No. 2. Name unknown. Description Height 5 feet 9 inches, weight 180 pounds. Aged 40 years, light hair, high forehead.
No. 3. Name unknown. Description Height 5 feet, 11 inches, weight 150 pounds, aged 22 years, heavy hair, medium dark.
No. 4. Name unknown. Description Height 5 feet, 4 inches, weight 135 pounds, aged 35E years, heavy old scar on left leg below knee.
No. 5. J. H. Shoemaker. Body claimed by father, Mayor Shoemaker of Charleston, Ill.
No. 6. Name unknown. Description Height 6 feet, one inch, weight 180 pounds, aged 35 years, dark hair.
No. 7. Name unknown. Description Height 5 feet, 7 inches, weight 160 pounds, aged 45 years. Bald headed.
No. 8. Name unknown. Description Height 5 feet ten Inches, weight 160 pounds, aged 38, light hair.
No. 9. Name unknown. Description Height 6 feet, weight 150 pounds, aged 45 years, slightly gray.
No. 10. Name unknown. Description Height 5 feet, 10 inches, weight 160 pounds, light hair.
No. 11. Arthur D. Miller, light thin hair, bald on top, Weight 145 pounds.
No; 12. Name unknown. Description Height 5 feet, 6 Inches, weight 140 pounds, aged 40 years, light hair.
No. 13. Name unknown. Description Height 5 feet. 7 Inches, weight 140 pounds, aged 40 years, light hair. Two gold teeth.
No. 14. Antonio Mukelvich. Height 5 feet, 8 inches, aged 34, heavy dark hair. Identified by army discharge in pocket.
No. 15. Name unknown. Description Height 5 feet, 4 inches, aged 25 years, very dark. Black coarse hair. Small man. Tattooed cross on left arm. Discharge from Italian army number 63330340 in pocket. Name on discharge as James Saughauze. Card of Nathan D. Overton, Poseyville, Ind., in pocket also.
No. 16. Name unknown. Description Height 6 feet, 1 inch. Heavy dark hair flecked with gray.
No. 17. Ed H. Miller. Height 6 feet 1 Inch. Weight 180 pounds, light brown hair. Gold upper teeth.
No. 18. Name unknown. Description Height 5 feet 11 inches. Aged 40 years. Brown kinky hair. Large scar on side from old burns.
No. 19. Howard Hoffman. Body claimed by relatives.
      Part of the names of the men partially identified ' were taken from papers found in their pockets and others were given from memory by the timekeeper in the hospital. They are probably not correct In every case. Officials have received inquiries from several states from persons seeking knowledge of relatives thot to have died In the mine war but no more bad been claimed when the sixteen were buried Sunday.
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Marion Semi-Weekly Leader, Marion, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 374, June 30, 1922, Page 3
Conference at Mine
                  Photo by Chicago Tribune
Holding Conference
      This photo was taken at the conference at the mine on Monday when President Lester was begged to cease operations by union. county and state officials. another conference was held in the states attorney's office in Marion, both were fruitless. In the group on the left will be seen State Senator W. J. Sneed in shirtsleeves, C. K. McDowell, the superintendent who was killed on Thursday is between Sneed and Col. Samuel N. Hunter, of the Illinois National Guard, who is talking with J. H. Shoemaker, a civil engineer and brother-in-law of President Lester of the mine, who was later killed. The man in the center of the picture, facing the camera is Marcus Delaney, who had charge of the guards, and who thru error on the part of the city newspapers was labeled as Superintendent McDowell. In the group on the right is Deputy Sheriff John Shafer with a black hat. Bookkeeper Robert Officer with a straw hat and Editor R. Drobeck of the Williamson County Miner of Johnston City in shirtsleeves and bareheaded.
Meeting at Mine
                  Photo by Chicago Tribune
Attempted to Make Peace
      Left to right: Col Samuel N. Hunter of the Illinois National Guard, State Senator William J. Sneed, Sheriff Melvin Thaxton, Deputy Sheriff John A. Shafer who made repeated trips to the mine and interviewed President J. W. Lester before any trouble occurred, in an effort to prevent bloodshed. This photo was taken Monday when these officials met Mr. Lester at the mine in an attempt to stop non-union work.
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Mrs. Jacobs, of York Pennsylvania Identifies Husband's Body at Herrin
      The wife and brother of Raymond C. C. Jacobs of York, Pa., went to Herrin on Tuesday where they had the grave of the man who was interred under the description of No. 16 opened. They at once identified the face and after the body had been disintered they further identified it by marks on the foot and by a mashed finger on one hand.
      Jacobs was one of the victims of the strip mine riot and had been identified by the timekeeper as man he knew as Allen C. Norine. He was a man 6 feet 1 inch in height and had heavy dark hair, flecked with gray.
      He had received pistol shots in the breast and head. the body was taken to the old home at York, Pa., shipment being made over the C. E. I. from Johnston City on Tuesday evening.

Prairie Farmer, Chicago, Illinois
July 1, 1922, Page 8
Savages Still
      ARE we civilized, or are we only savages with a little education?
      If you think that is a foolish question, read the following paragraph:
      "Fifteen men were thrown into a pond, with rocks tied around their necks. Six men, tied together and horribly mangled by bullets and clubs, lay stretched out in the road under a scorching sun. " 'For God s sake give me some water !' cried one of them. The men laughed. A young woman carrying a baby walked to his side. She looked down with a sneer on her lips and stamped her foot on his chest. 'I'll see you in hell first,' she said.
      No, that is not a dispatch from Russia or the story of an Indian massacre. It is a reporter's story of something that happened A. D. 1922, last week, in our own state of Illinois.
      The coal miners were striking for higher wages. A coal company at Herrin, in Williamson county, brought in strikebreakers and started to dig coal. They were attacked by a mob, surrendered, and then the events took place as stated above.
      As so often happens when a mob gathers, five thousand years of civilization was lost in a moment. Men and women alike were little more than wild beasts, seeking to maim and torture and kill.
      Some people will say this is a job for police and soldiers. Maybe it is -- after the damage is done.
      But that is not the real answer. We cannot civilize men with soldiers. We must get Jesus Christ into their hearts. The school and the church and the other agencies that train the hearts of men to love instead of to hate still have much work to do. Upon them rests the task of making riots like the one at Herrin impossible. The march of humanity up from savagery is slow. The workers are few, the indifferent are many. What are you doing to help make the world better?
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Marion Semi-Weekly Leader, Marion, Illinois
Vol. 47, No. 4, July 14, 1922, Page 1
Circuit Judge States That Special Grand Jury Will Not Investigate Recent Killings
      In speaking with newspaper men this morning Circuit Judge D. T. Hartwell made the following statement to the newspaper representatives, which is self-explanatory:
      "I have, until now, refrained from saying anything upon the subject of the recent unfortunate affair, wherein several men were killed and others injured, near the mine of the, Southern Illinois Coal Company, located about half way between Marion and Herrin. You gentlemen are here to gather and report what ever transpires in the court and you are entitled to know that which is public information and there Is no desire on the part of the court to keep from you any information that the court can give you within the limit of the law, and it might save you some time if I announce to you and the public as well, that the July term of our court is not a grand jury term. By that I mean no grand jury is selected by the county board of supervisors as is done for other terms of court. But if a grand jury is required one may be called by order of the court, as has; been done by the order I have this day made in which I ordered that a grand jury be summoned for the 17th day of July. There is public necessity for a grand jury outside at and wholly disconnected with the killings referred to above, and in order that you may know the facts I am at liberty to say this much: There will be no investigation commenced or attempted by the July grand jury except concerning persons in jail and not indicted, whose cases must be investigated and trial offered them during this July term, which is a term of court beginning within four months after their imprisonment. The attorney general of this state is the highest law officer of the state and I believe I violate no confidence when I say that it is the desire of the attorney general of Illinois that no Investigation be attempted at this time, and this request Is based upon what I deem sufficient reasons. It is not necessary that I be informed of the detailed reasons. No formal petition has presented to me by the attorney general. However I state the facts accurately when I say this court has been properly informed as to the wishes of the attorney general's office, and assurances have been given by the court to the attorney general that his wishes in the premises will be complied with, so gentlemen, you can safely go about you way with the assurances that I have given you."
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Judge Hartwell Calls Special Grand Jury to Dispose of Cases in Jail
      Judge Hartwell called a special grand jury on Monday morning and it will convene on Monday, July 17th. The call for the grand jury is as follows:
      "WHEREAS, there are persons in the common jail of this county charged with felony and unable to give bond and not indicted by any grand Jury, and
      "WHEREAS, it is provided by law that persons imprisoned, in jail are entitled to a trial at a term of court beginning within four months from the date of such imprisonment if there is such a term and
      "WHEREAS, this being the July term of the circuit court of Williamson County, Illinois and term for which there is no grand jury unless upon order of the court and
      "WHEREAS, the ends of public justice requires that grand Jury be called for this term, July 1922.
      "N0W THEREFORE, it is ordered by the court that a grand jury come and that such grand jury be composed of 23 persons possessing the qualification required by law and such grand jury shall convene and be summoned to appear in the court house in the city of Marion in the county of Williamson in the State of Illinois on or before the hour of 11 o'clock a. m. July the 17th, 1922,
      "It Is further ordered by the court that said grand jurors be selected and chosen in the manner provided by law and that summons be issued commanding them and each of said 23 persons those selected and chosen as such grand jurors to appear and convene on the day and hour and place hereinafter mentioned, and the sheriff is hereby commanded to serve said grand jurors in the manner provided by law and to make due and proper returns of his acts and doings in the premises according to the laws of the state of Illinois and according to the statutes of said state made and provided."
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Marion Semi-Weekly Leader, Marion, Illinois
Vol. 47, No. 6, Tuesday, July 18, 1922, Page 1
Attorney General Brundage Makes Offer to Obtain Massacre Information
      One thousand dollars reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction of persons who committed murder and assault in Williamson county was offered yesterday by Attorney General Brundage. The penalty for belonging to a mob which does violence or property damage is imprisonment for not more than five years, he said.
      "Every person who knows the fact that a crime has been committed and conceals it from a magistrate can be punished," said Mr. Brundage. ''All persons who know the facts are required by law to disclose them. An opportunity is now given to those who are willing to perform their duty as citizen in that regard. All who fail to make disclosures of their knowledge before August 1, will, upon discovery, be prosecuted as accessories after the fact."
      Relatives of persons suffering death at the hands of a mob may recover $5,000 damages from the county.
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Attorney General Was Here for Conference With States Attorney
Convicted Sixty After East St. Louis Riots by the Same Method
      Attorney General Edward J. Brundage was a Marion visitor Monday afternoon to investigate and confer with States Attorney Delos Duty in regard to the prosecution of those who took part in the recent riots here.
      Before taking the evening train back to Chicago he told a REPUBLICAN reporter that "we already have information that would make it possible to obtain convictions, but we must not act too hastily and will use that information to obtain additional information. There is no doubt that we will obtain many conviction when the time comes."
      The Attorney General, who is a very shrewd lawyer, would not divulge any of his methods. He stated however that he was receiving many anonymous letters and that everyone of these was followed up by his operatives to verify facts and to obtain additional names.
      The policy being followed by Mr. Brundage in this case, is the same as he followed after the East St. Louis riots, when he obtained a total of over sixty convictions, in fines or prison sentences. He stated that he did not believe it advisable to take up the matter before the special grand jury which convenes next Monday, but await a later term when more complete information is obtainable.
      He was especially interested in the posting of notices offering a thousand dollars reward for information leading to the arrest of parties who took part in the riot. Sheriff Thaxton Is posting these notices. The notice quotes the law and states that, "communications in this regard will be deemed confidential and all who offer assistance will be protected by the state in every way." The notice ends as follows: "Every person who knows the facts that a crime has been committed and conceals It, or who harbors, maintains, or assists any principal felon or any accessory before the facts, knowing him to be such, is an accessory after the fact and can be punished as such
      "All persons who know the facts are required by law to disclose them. An opportunity Is now given to those who are willing to perform their duty as citizens in that regard."
      Information can be sent direct to the Attorney General at Springfield or given to States Attorney Delos Duty.
      Before leaving the Attorney General said that he bad fullest confidence in States Attorney Delos Duty and that he was receiving his fullest co-operation. He also said that Sheriff Melvin Thaxton had co-operated with him in everything he asked and that he felt sure he would also have his fullest co-operation.
      The Attorney General's office, he said, would not be represented at the inquest over the body of Guy Hudgens, which will be held on Monday. Hudgens died from wounds received during the riot on June 21st.
      W. E. Troutman of East St. Louis, an assistant Attorney General, was also here for tbe conference.
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Marion Semi-Weekly Leader, Marion, Illinois
Vol. 47, No. 6, Tuesday, July 18, 1922, Page 2
New Virginia Miner, who was Shot During Recent Riot, Died in Hospital
      Death at 7 p. m. Thursday claimed Guy B. Hudgens after a valiant effort to save his life. Hudgens was shot on Wednesday afternoon, June 21, during the riots near here and since that time has lingered between life and death. for a time it was believed his life would be spared.
      Hudgens was born at Pulleys Mill on September 17, 1886, the son of John B. and Anna B. McInturff Hudgens. His mother died soon after his birth. At the time of his death he was 35 years, 9 months and 26 days of age. Besides his father he is survived by one brother, Earl Hudgens of St. Louis and one sister, Mrs. W. W. Kirk of Joppa and the following half brothers and sisters, Arbie Hudgens, Valgean Hudgens, Jack Hudgens, K. Hudgens, Mrs. Everett Thornton and Miss Emma Hudgens, all of Goreville. One brother died in infancy.
      For twenty years he had lived in Montana where he was married about ten years ago. His wife died in March, 1920, and he returned to this county in May of that year, taking his six year old daughter, Juanita, to the home of his sister at Joppa and she is raising the girl. He was an employe of the West Virginia Mine, but in Montana had been in the cattle business.
      Mr. Hudgens lived at the West Virginia mine so as to be near his work but spent considerable of his spare time in Marion with Egbert Hudgens on North Market street. He was well liked and had hundreds of friends who are saddened by his untimely death. He was a member at Red Lodge, Montana.
      Funeral services Sunday after noon at 2 p. m. at Fountain church. The funeral party will leave the home of Egbert Hudgens on North Market street at 1 p. m. and the Odd Fellows and U. M. W. of A. will take part.
      Coroner William McCowan summoned a jury for the inquest over the body of Guy Hudgens Friday morning. The jury viewed the body and retired until the inquest will be held Monday at 8 a. m., having been postponed to secure witnesses of the shooting. The jury is composed of the following: Aaron Ice, Monroe Arms, Fred Holmes, Enoch Gulley, Bert Brace and W. C. Cash.
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Marion Semi-Weekly Leader, Marion, Illinois
Vol. 47, No. 6, Tuesday, July 18, 1922, Page 4
Illinois Attorney General and Assistant Visit Williamson County to Investigate Riots
      Hon. Edward J. Brundage, attorney general of the state of Illinois accompanied by his assistant Hon. W. E Troutman of East St. . St. Louis, arrived in Marion at 12.40 Friday afternoon to make a personal investigation as to what action should be taken by the state in connection with the riots at the Southern Illinois Coal Company's strip mine.
      Mr. Brundage went into conference with States Attorney Delos Duty in the afternoon and in an interview with a representative of the MARION DAILY REPUBLICAN said: "I cannot give out any information at this time other than to say that I am here to confer with Mr. Duty regarding the recent trouble in this section and to give him any assistance which I can in handling the matter." He stated that he had not had time to go over the situation with Mr. Duty but that he and his assistant were going over it in detail with him. They will remain here long enough to learn the general situation so as to be able to act later.
      While en route to Marion from St. Louis Mr. Brundage was interviewed by a representative of the Globe Democrat and their story follows:
      "Investigation of the recent massacre at Herrin, III, in which a number of nonunion mine worker were slain by striking union miners, will be pursued by the State of Illinois until the men responsible tor. the killings are brought to justice, regardless of the time and effort required. Attorney General Edward J. Brundage of Illinois stated last night.
      "Brundage arrived in St. Louis yesterday from Springfield, III., and will leave this morning for Marion, Ill., the county seat of Williamson county, to confer with States Attorney Delos Duty on matters relating to the investigation.
      "The Illinois Attorney General said that the Williamson county prosecutor has given him very satisfactory thus far. Pressed for a statement regarding the attitude of other Williamson county officials, he refused to commit himself.
      " 'Mr. Duty is giving me very valuable assistance,' he said 'I do not care to be quoted concerning other Williamson county officials' Brundage said that he had a number of operatives from his department in Williamson county working on the case. He stated that be would go to Herrin today or tomorrow if his presence there is found necessary.
      "Commenting on the statement of Assistant Secretary Theodore Roosevelt of the Navy Department at Atlantic City that 'justice should be done in the Herrin case, regardless of affiliations,' Bundage declared that it was easy for 'gentlemen a long way off to give advice as to the manner of handling the probe.' He said that he knew of no investigation of the Herrin killings instituted by the United States government."
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Marion Semi-Weekly Leader, Marion, Illinois
Vol. 47, No. 6, Friday, July 21, 1922, Page 1
Miners and Odd Fellows Honored Their Deceased Comrade on Sunday
Thousands of Friends Motored to Cemetery to Pay Their Respects.
      Funeral services for Guy Hudgens were held at Fountain cemetery Sunday afternoon and it was estimated that 3500 people drove the eight mile trip in automobiles to pay honor to the third union miner who lost his life in the recent rioting at the mine of the Southern Illinois Company.
      The long line of automobiles that motored thru the country roads near the old Hudgens home place numbered over 600. A .neighboring field was thrown open as a parking place for the cars while the thousands ol people thronged the church yard where the services were held. One truck of the procession carried the Marion Military Band which furnished music for the occasion and another truck carried the floral tributes which were placed upon the grave of the dead miner by fellow union men. The ten locals of Marion contributed a large floral blanket and flowers were furnished by all the miners locals of the county as well as friends of the family from Union and Saline county. Two car loads of miners from Harrisburg were present also.
      Dr. A. M. Laird officiated at the services and a short talk was made by A. T. Pace of Herrin. The Fountain and Goreville Odd Fellows' lodges had charge of the Odd Fellows part of the ceremony. The pallbearers were all miners and Odd Fellows, three representing Herrin and three from Marion. They were as follows: A. T. Pace, Harry Fowler and Fred Holderfleld of Herrin, and Frank Bell, Charles Lannon and Clarence Dixon of Marion.
      Coronor William McCowan held an inquest at the city hall Monday morning to inquire into the death of Hudgens who died in the Herrin hospital Thursday night from wounds received on Wednesday during the rioting. No evidence was presented except the statement of Dr. Gardiner of Herrin and Dr. Zack Hudson of Marion who attended Hudgens and the jury returned the verdict to the effect that the man came to his death from gun shot wounds at the hands of parties unknown. Coroner McCown had postponed the inquest until Monday in order to secure more evidence as to the shooting. He went to Herrin in an attempt to find witnesses but was unsuccessful and was not able to learn who brot the wounded man to the home of Arthur Hudgens at Marion following the shooting. Neither could he find anyone who was with Hudgens at the time he received the wound which caused his death. The coroner's jury was composed of Anon Ice, W. C. Cash, Fred Holmes, Enoch Gulley, Bert Grace and Monroe Armes.
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Marion Semi-Weekly Leader, Marion, Illinois
Vol. 47, No. 6, Friday, July 21, 1922, Page 4
Papers Served Upon County Officials Demanding $217,420 Damages
Claims Filed by Three Individuals for Property that Was Lost
      Damage suits totaling $217,420 were filed Monday afternoon against Williamson county for damages received in the riots in the county last month. These are the first of many suits that have been contemplated. The largest claim is made by Southern Illinois Coal company. All of the claims are filed by Attorneys Bull, Lytton and Olson of Chicago.
      Notices were served on the chairman of the county board, the states attorney and county clerk to make sure of service. The claim reads in part as follows:
      "You are hereby notified that, in consequence of a mob or riot, composed of twelve or more persons, the property of Southern Illinois Coal Company, corporation, was destroyed or injured within the county of Williamson, Illinois, while not in transit, between the hour of ten o'clock in the morning of June 21, 1922 and the hour of five o'clock in the afternoon of June 23, 1922, and that by reason thereof said Southern Illinois Coal Company, a corporation, sustained damage's in the sum of $197,245. . . . such destruction or injury was not occasioned, or in any way aided, sanctioned or permitted by the carelessness, neglect or wrongful act of said Southern Illinois Coal Company; that said Southern Illinois Coal Company used all reasonable diligence to prevent such damage, injury and destruction that said Southern Illinois Coal Company has and hereby makes and presents claim against you for three-fourth of the said damages sustained by reason of such destruction and injury as aforesaid and payment thereof is demanded, pursuant to the provisions of an Act of the Legislature of the State of Illinois, entitle, 'An Act to indemnify the owners of property for damages occasioned by mobs and riots,' approved June 15, A. D. 1887."
      The following is a description of property and amounts of damage claimed by the Southern Illinois Coal Company:
      One 225 Bucyrus stripping shovel, injured, $65,000.
      One 25 Bucyrus loading shovel, injured, $20,000.
      85 and 60 lb. track (switch track, pit and yard, injured, $2,000.
      Eight switches, injured, $2,000.
      One No. locomotive (Baldwin, 35 ton), injured, $3,500.
      One No. 6 American saddle tank, injured, $3,500.
      One Vulcan 35 ton saddle tank, injured, $3,000.
      One blacksmith shop, injured, $1,200.
      One track scales, injured, $800.
      One 16 acre pond with 700 foot dam, injured, $3,500.
      One air compressor, injured, $800.
      Electrification equipment, transformers, high tension line, distributing lines, poles, automatic pump lines, injured, $1,000.
      One water tank, (Cypress), destroyed, $1,000.
      One office building and storeroom, $2,500.
      One oil house, destroyed, $500.
      One powder house, destroyed, $250.
      One pump house, destroyed, $500.
      One gasoline air compressor, destroyed, $1,200.
      Miscellaneous supplies, $5,000.
      Small tools, (track tools, jacks, shovels, etc) $3,000.
      Office fixtures, desks, cabinets, letter files, typewriters, protectograph,steel safe and miscellaneous office supplies, $2,500.
      Contents of oil house, destroyed $300.
      Contents of powder house, blasting supplies, destroyed $370.
      220 tons of coal (in cars) at $4, $880.
      Contents ot blacksmith shop, forge, benches, drill press, line shafting, lumber, 5 h. p. motor,
      Seven camp cars, equipped, destroyed, $13,500.
      Extra equipment for camp cars, destroyed, $500.
      Commissary supplies (food stuffs, kitchen and dining utensils, etc., $2,000
      Currency and securities in office building, destroyed, $2,500.
      Maps, record books and unreplaceable documents in office building, destroyed, $5,000.
      Engineering instruments, $150.
      Two electric drills, injured so as to be worthless, $460.
      Two sets drills and bits, injured, so as to be worthless, $40.
      One extra boiler feed Duty and probably pump, injured so as to be worthless,
      One flood light, injured so as to be worthless, $75.
      One searchlight, injured so as to be worthless, $120.
      One cyclone drill, injured so as to be worthless, $1,500.
      One electric power pump, injured so as to be worthless, $2,500.
      One 6x8 electric centrifugal pump, American marsh, with motor, injured so as to be worthless, $900.
      One 3x2 centrifugal Swaby pump with 15 h. p. motor, injured so as to be worthless, $350.
      One 2x3 centrifugal pump with motor, injured so as to be worthless, $300.
      One 15 h. p. motor, injured so as to be worthless, $200.
      One 2 inch steam pump, injured so as to be worthless, $150.
      Pipe line -- 5500 feet 3 inch line, injured so as to be worthless, $600.
      10,000 ft. 2 inch line, Injured so as to be worthless, $600.
      One team of horses, with harness and wagon, destroyed, or missing, $500.
      70,000 tons of coal stripped and ready for loading, Injured, $35,000.
      Total, $197,245
      The following is an additional list of the Southern Illinois Coal Company property that was damaged:
      One Dodge gasoline automobile touring car type, injured, $500.
      One White gasoline automobile truck, injured, $800.
      Extra automobile tire, destroyed, $150.
      Total, $1450.
      The following claim was filed by the Hamilton-Lester Coal Company:
      One steam shovel, injured, $14,000.
      3000 feet of 3 Inch pipe, injured, $600.
      5000 feet of 2 inch pipe, injured, $500.
      45 tons of 65 lb. rails at $35.00 per ton, injured, $1,575.
      One car load of track, tie plats, and railroad spikes, injured, $1,000.
      Total, $17,675.
Individual Claims.
      The following are individual claims tor property lost during the time of the riot and by men who escaped
Mike Melah --
            Wearing apparel, $400.70.
            Jewelry, $191.00.
            Personal effects, $24.80.
            Revere motor stock. $300.
            Luggage, trunk, and bag, $83.50.
            Total, $1000.
Cart Mankins --
            Wearing apparel, $206.
            Suitcases and other personal effects, $44.
            Total, $250.
Robert McLennan --
            Wearing apparel, $186.75.
            Suitcases and other personal effects, $35.75.
            Jewelry, $78.50.
            Total, $300.
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Marion Semi-Weekly Leader, Marion, Illinois
Vol. 47, No. 7, Tuesday, July 25, 1922, Page 1
First Death Claim for Five Thousand Dollars Filed by Mrs. Jacobs.
Southern Illinois Coal Company Files Additional Claim.
      Notices of additional claims against the county have been filed In the county clerk's office totaling $30,013.61, which Is demanded for damages resulting from the riots at the mine of the Southern Illinois Coal Company's strip mine between Marion and Herrin on June 21 and 22. Most of the last claims filed are made by individuals but the Southern Illinois Coal Company has made an additional claim of $21,070.00 for loss of mine property, bringing the total amount demanded from the county to $247,433.61
      The first death claim as the result the riot was made Thursday afternoon by Mrs. Mabelle Jacobs, widow Raymond C. C. Jacobs, whose body was identified by his wife and brother who came to Herrin from York, Pa. to have it exhumed. The claim is made for $5000 and an additional claim of $100 filed for personal property.
      Maurice T. Delaney, captain of guards at the mine is also among the the ones filing claims. His claim totals $281 for personal property lost as a result of the riot. A. P. Findlay, the time-keep- at the mine filed a claim of $245. Findlay was wounded and operated on in the Herrin hospital where he testified at the coroner's inquest on Sunday following the rioting.
      Following is list of claims filed since Tuesday:
William Cairns --
            Wearing apparel, $134. 00
            Jewelry, $163.00
            Personal effects, $97.60
            Money stolen, $30.00
            Total, $424.60
Robert Tracy --
            Wearing apparel, $127.60
            Jewelry, $117.60
            Personal effects, $45.80
            Cash, $17.00
            Total, $308.30
H. L. Springer --
            Traveling bag and other personal effects, $89.45
            Wearing apparel, $120.50
            Total, $209.95
J. E. Shoemaker --       Eleanor Shoemaker, as administratrix of the estate of John E. Shoemaker, deceased --
            Wearing apparel, $160.00
            Jewelry, $50.00
            Money, $25.00
            Other personal, including engineering instruments valued at $200.00, $250.00
            Total, $385 00
Frank Schmidt --
            Jewelry, $60.00
            Personal effects, $57.00
            missing, $ 6.50
            Total, $221.50
Vernon C. Wilson --
            Wearing apparel, $200.00
            Jewelry, $79.00
            Personal effects, $36.00
            Total $315.00
Joseph Sadter --
            Suitcase and other personal effects, $73.25
            Wearing apparel, $103.00
            Jewelry, $35.00
            Total, $211.25
Maurice T. DeLaney --
            Wearing apparel , $142.50
            Suitcase and other personal effects, $78.50
            Currency, $60.00
            Total, $281.00
J. R. Williams -- J. R. Williams by B. P. Clark, duly authorized agent:
            Wearing apparel, $116.00
            Personal effects, $41.00
            Jewelry, 45.00
            Total, $202.00
A. P. Findlay.
            Wearing apparel, $120.75
            Leather traveling bag and other personal effects, $104.00
            Jewelry, $20.75
            Total, $245.560
James P. James --
            Wearing apparel, $100.00
            Currency, $42.00
            Watch, $30.00
            Personal effects, $58.00
            Total, $230.00
Bernard Jones --
            Wearing apparel, $106.50
            Jewelry, $25.00
            Black Bosson bag and other personal effects, $73.50
            Total, $230.00
R. C. C. Jacobs -- Mrs. Mabelle A. Jacobs, widow of Raymond C. C. Jacobs of York, Pa., by Alden, Latham & Young, her attorneys --
            Claim for Compensation, $5,000.00
            Wearing apparel, $300.00
            Watch, jewelry etc., $300.00
            Currency and other personal effects, $400.00
            Total, $6,000.00
Andrew Riber --
            Wearing apparel, $100.00
            Personal effects, $25.00
            Jewelry, $28.00
            Cash and Check Stolen, $53.00
            Total, $206.00
Southern Illinois Coal Company.
      William J. Lester, president of Southern Illinois Coal Company filed this additional claim, his third claim thus
            Electric compressor, with motor, injured, $1,000.00.
            Machine parts and supplies, injured, $3,000.00
            Railroad gondola coal cars, 60 ton capacity, two at $2,000, $4,00.00
            Swaby centrifugal pump, 3x2, Injured, $100.00
            Two inch team pump (geared-belt driven, injured, $150.00
            Duplex boiler feed pump, injured, $200.00
            American Monarch centrifugal pump, 6x3, injured, $200.00
            One Cyclone drill, 5 inch hole, injured, $3,500.00
            Pipe line (pipe fittings, joints and valves, injured, $1000.00
            One Chicago centrifugal pump, 3x2, injured, $150.00
            One gas engine, injured, $150.00
            One vertical boiler for pump house, injured, $500.00
            Railroad gondola coal cars, 60 ton capacity, two at $2500, destroyed, $5000.00.
            One search light, destroyed, $120.00
            Two electric drills, destroyed or missing, $460.00
            Extra sets drills and bits, destroyed or missing, $40.00.
            15 h. p. motor for Swaby pump, destroyed or missing, $250.00
            30 h. p., motor attached to centrifugal pump destroyed, $500.00
            One 15 h. p. motor attached to Chicago pump, destroyed, $250.00
            Additional contents blacksmith shop, starting box, switchboard, sandier, emery wheels, injured so so to be worthless, $500.00
            Total, $21,070.00.
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Marion Semi-Weekly Leader, Marion, Illinois
Friday, July 28, 1922, Page
Farrington Says His Organization Will Furnish Funds and Attorneys.
      SPRINGFIELD, July 25. The full force of the Ill. district of the United Miner Workers will be used to defend any union miners who may be charged with the death of any of the nineteen non union men who lost their lives near Herrin last month, declared Frank Farrington, president of the Illinois mine workers. He said he was not condoning violence, but that his organization would take charge of the finances necessary for the trial and would direct the defence of every member on trial.
      Attorney General Brundage when informed of the plans said that the prosecution was going rapidly ahead and that the case may be ready for trial before the September term of court.

Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
Saturday Evening, August 5, 1922
Herrin, III. Aug. 5. -- The body of another victim of the Herrin mine war identified as Arthur D. Miller of New York., today was shipped home for burial, the body having been disinterred yesterday. He is the fourth victim identified.
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Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
Thursday Evening, August 24, 1922, page 1
(By the United Press)
      Washington, Aug 24. -- On the request of Attorney General Brundage, Attorney Daughery has given D. Middlekauff leave of absence to act as special prosecutor in the Herrin mine war prosecution. Daugherty announced today. Middlekauff has been acting as special assistant to Daugherty.
      The grand jury to investigate the massacre convenes in Herrin next Monday. Middlekauff acted as prosecutor in the East St. Louis riots.
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Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
Thursday Evening, August 24, 1922, page 5
Threaten Death If Herrin War Is Probed
      Springfield, Ill., Aug. 24 -- Threats of death if he goes Into Williamson county to conduct an investigation of the Herrin masacre, have been received by Attorney General Brundage, he said tonight, while preparing for the grand Jury investigation at Marion Monday. A letter dated at Herrin and mailed at Pekin advises him to "keep out of Williamson if you know what's good for you."
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Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
Monday Evening, August 28, 1922, Page 1
(By the United Press)
      Marion, Ill., Aug. 28. -- The special grand jury which today opened a searching probe of the Herrin massacre will be made almost entirely of farmers of Williamson county. Names of a panel of 26 men were announced shortly before noon today by Attorney General Edward J. Brundage. All are farmers except one -- P. P. Russell, a banker of Hurst. From this number, 23 will be chosen to form the jury. All but three or four reside east of Marion, many in the vicinity of Harrisburg.
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Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
Tuesday Evening, August 29, 1922, Page 5
(By the United Press)
      Marion, Ill., Aug. 29. Surrounded by the greatest secrecy 23 members of a special grand jury today resumed the task of determining responsibility for the Herrin mine war. With the more or less perfunctory testimony of county officials disposed of during yesterday's opening session, Attorney General Edward J. Brundage today prepared to call eye witnesses of the battle, which cost 22 union and non-union miners their lives.
      Williamson county, branded as "bloody and lawless," is accepting the probe, out of which may come the indictment of scores on charges ranging from assault to murder, calmly. Union miners marched to the pits today, apparently unmindful of the investigation. Jurors, lawyers and newspaper men, alone appeared interested.

Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
Thursday Evening, September 7, 1922, Page 5
More Indictments Are Expected At Herrin
(By the United Press)
      Marion, Ill., Sept. 7. -- Further indictments of participants in the Herrin massacre were today believed awaiting work of the indictment writer of the special grand jury. The grand jury continued its work on what appeared to be petty details, but these details, it was explained, are necessary for the proper wording of each indictment. Additional indictments are expected into this afternoon.
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Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
Friday Evening, September 8, 1922
Wholesale Arrests Are Being Made At Herrin Following Return Of Indictments
(By the United Press)
      Marion, Ill., Sept. 8. -- Round up of the Herrin massacre participants was underway in Williamson county today . With the return of 38 indictments of the special grand jury late yesterday, each charging murder, Sheriff Melvin Thaxton, assisted by his regular and special deputies, today arrested and imprisoned in the county jail here as many of the indicted men as could be found. The first arrest was made by Sheriff Thaxton, ten minutes after the indictments had been returned, when he took into custody Philip Fontainetta, a miner of Marlon.
      Three others arrested last night were : Levi Mann, miner of Herrin; Charles Rogers, Herrin miner, and James Brown, negro deputy of Colp, Ill. All were placed in jail. The remaining 33 indicted will be imprisoned as rapidly as they are found, Sheriff Thaxton announced. That some have already left the state Is believed probable, and it may be weeks or even months before they are apprehended. Altho the jury had been expected to return some indictments late yesterday, the number --38-- and the specific charges against the Individuals accused, were a surprise. A majority are miners, altho some are engaged in other work.
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Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Thursday, September 26, 1922, Page 1
Eighty-Six Residents of Mining Communities Give Bail ; Six Held in Jail at Marion
(By Associated Press.)
      MARION, Sept. 25. -- Eighty-six men of Herrin, Johnson City and Marion appeared before Circuit Judge Hartwell today and received the amount of bonds for their release. Bonds to the amount of $410, 000 were, furnished by the men to the clerk.
      The men were indicted for murder in connection with the Herrin mine killing. They were released with eight exceptions, six in jail without bail, while the other two are to be apprehended.
Herrin Predominant
      Herrin had the largest representation among the bonds. Bonds were made out for all of the indicted men and were covered by 86 bondsmen. James Brown, a negro, E. C. Mann, Phillip Fontanetta, Peter Hiller, with Oscar Howard and Jesse Childers are ordered held without bond, as soon as they are apprehended. There are now a total of 52 indictments for murder, those held without bail are said to have been the leaders of the riot, and all of them are indicted for more than one charge. Their trials will be held first under present plans.
Court Crowded
      Counting the 11 men who have been released on bond for conspiracy and rioting a total of 28 men are still at liberty, including 7 charged with murder. The appearance of the indicted men in court was the occasion of a crowded court room, spectators crowding the rooms and doors, and the windows were even filled to overflowing. Many women, some who held babes in their arms were there to hear the trial.
Otis Clark Pleads
      Otis Clark charged with being the mob leader and with having fired the first shot in the riot which ended the life of McDowell the superintendent of the strip mine, killing 19 non-union workers and three union miners was the best dressed man to appear in court. He pleaded not guilty.
      Judge Hartwell announced that the would confer with attorneys in a few days and would state the time of the opening of the trials which are expected about October 1.
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Coal Age Vol. 22, No. 13; September 28, 1922
Herrin Massacre Grand Jury
Special Grand Jury That Indicted 214 For Herrin Massacre
Grand Jury Indicts 214 for Herrin Horror and Reports To the Court Without Fear or Partiality
      The activity of the law in the Herrin case is a "private persecution by a political boss and a labor-hating organization," according to a public statement issued from Marion, Ill., by a. W. Kerr, chief counsel for the United Mine Workers of America. He charges Attorney General Brundage with trying the case in the press and influencing the grand jury by that means and suggests that the grand jury's report was written by the Illinois Chamber of Commerce, which is raising money to finance the investigation. Kerr injects a play for the sympathy of governor Len Small and his political machine by stating that Brundage conducted a "political trial" in the courts against Small last spring that "resulted in the death of the first lady of the state."
      The special grand jury which for a month has been investigating massacre of nineteen non-union miners and the wounding of thirty others near Herrin, Ill., on June 22, last Saturday reported back to the judge. It brought in enough indictments that day to swell the total in the case to 214 -- forty-four of them for murder, fifty-eight for conspiracy to commit murder, fifty-four for assault to murder and fifty-eight for conspiracy and rioting -- and rendered a report notable for its impartial and fearless tone. Among those indicted for murder are Hugh Willis, state executive board member of the union in Illinois, and Will Davis, secretary-treasurer of the Herrin local.
      Thirty-five of the defendants were arraigned and pleaded not guilty Monday. Eight charged with murder and considered ringleaders were refused bail. six were bonded for $20,000 each, twenty for $10,000 each and eighteen for $5,000 each. Several charged with rioting are already out under $1,000 bonds. The eight men refused bail are Otis Clark, Bert Grace, James Brown, Leva Mann, Philip Fontanetta, Peter Miller, Oscar Howard and Jess Childers. Howard and Childers have not been apprehended. Eighty-six men, from bankers to small storekeepers, provided the bail. These included most of the prominent men of Herrin, encouraged by Mayor Pace of that town, who marshalled them by saying this would be a good way of showing who was and who was against the miners' union.
      The jury blames the Southern Illinois Coal Co. for its "foolhardy" efforts to operate a non-union mine under armed guard in the midst of such intense union sympathies as prevail in Williamson County. It blames President Lewis and officers of the miners' union for the broadcasted and inflaming Lewis message saying the strip miners were "strike breakers and should be treated as such." It blames the county sheriff, Melville Thaxton, a union member and candidate for county treasurer, for being derelict in his duty for his own political benefit. It charges Adjutant-General Carlos Black, of the Illinois National Guard, with equal dereliction of duty for failure to rush state troops into the county when it was plain that violence was about to be done. It condemns the local police for laxity and makes several other findings indicating the desire of the jury to lay a solid foundation for the enforcement of justice in the prosecutions that may now begin.
      The text of the grand jury report follows:
      We the special grand jury of Williamson County empaneled to make an investigation of the crimes committed in and about the strip mine near and in Herrin on Wednesday and Thursday, June 21 and 22, 1922, and heedful of the instructions given by your honor to make a thorough investigation of the facts and circumstances, with a view of fixing the responsibility for the killing of some twenty-four persons and the wounding of many others, beg to report that we have examined approximately 300 witnesses and from their testimony learned these conditions:
      About the middle of June of this year, after suspension of the coal industry as the result of a strike of the United Mine Workers of America, the southern Illinois Coal Co. decided to operate a strip mine owned by it and located about midway between Marion and Herrin.
      The miners' union apparently raised no objections to the uncovering of the coal by the use of steamshovels, but when the company began to ship coal there was a bitter resentment on the part of the union miners.
      The coal company aggravated this resentment by employing armed guards and closing for public use certain established highways traversing the mine property and treating as trespassers citizens attempting to use the accustomed highway.
      The flaunting of arms in a community devoted almost exclusively to mining was conductive to strife; it was a challenge certain to be accepted, and for four or five days preceding the tragedy it was known by the authorities that a conflict was inevitable.
      The state administration undoubtedly realized the acute situation by sending to Williamson County Colonel Hunter of the adjutant general's staff. This representative of the state government testified that he recognized upon his arrival in Marion the imminence of a conflict and immediately asked the adjutant general to send state troops to protect the property and conserve the peace.
      This request Colonel Hunter renewed several times before the actual conflict, and was invariably asked by the adjutant general of Illinois if the sheriff of Williamson County had asked for troops. The adjutant general denied his authority to order them into Williamson County except on the sheriff's request, which, as your knows, is not the law.
      Melvin Thaxton, the sheriff of Williamson County, is the holder of a card in the miners' union and a candidate for County Treasurer at the forthcoming election.
      Either because of loyalty to the union or from fear of injuring his candidacy the sheriff would make no demand for troops nor did he take the adequate measures to preserve the peace.
      From the evidence heard, the attack of June 21 upon the men employed at the strip mine was the result of a conspiracy which had several days in the perfecting, the object of which was the closing of the strip mine.
      Sheriff Thaxton could not have been unaware of the development of this plan.
      On Monday, June 19, State Senator W. A. Sneed, district president of the United Mine Workers of this district, received from John Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers of America, a telegram as follows:
      "William Sneed, President, Sub-District 10, District 13, United Mine Workers of America, Herrin, Ill.: Steam Shovel Men's union was suspended from affiliation with American Federation of Labor some years ago. It was ordered suspended from the mining department of the A. F. of L. at the Atlantic City Convention.
      "We now find that this outlaw organization is permitting its members to act as strikebreakers at numerous pits in Ohio. this organization is furnishing steam shovel engineers to work under armed guards under no agreement which exists by and between this organization and the mining department or any branch of the A. F. of L. permitting them to work under such circumstances.
      "We have through representatives officially taken this question up with officers of the steam shovel men's union and have failed to secure any satisfaction.
      "Representatives of our organization are justified in treating this crowd as an outlaw organization and in viewing its members in the same light as they do any other common strikebreaker.
John L. Lewis."
      A copy of this telegram was posted and read in various places. Following the publication of the telegram from President Lewis preparations for an attack upon the mine was made. the hardware stores in all the cities of Williamson county were searched for firearms. The weapons were either taken by force or upon a verbal assurance that the local would pay for them.
      The men working at the strip mine were evidently ignorant of being strikebreakers. the men operating the steam shovels were affiliated with a union, even though unrecognized by the A. F. of L.
      The guards were told they were to protect the valuable machinery and did awake to the real danger until noon time of June 21, when bullets began to fly into the mine in such volume as to compel them to take refuge in the office, and later to seek safety under steel railroad cars on the strip mine property.
      Superintendent McDowell telephoned a number of times to Colonel Hunter for protection and was invariably informed by the latter that the sheriff could not be found. Finally Colonel Hunter suggested a flag of truce, which, while displayed by the mine defenders, caused no abatement of the fire.
      In the evening of June 21, upon the return to Marion of Sheriff Thaxton, a conference was held between the sheriff, Colonel Hunter, and officers of the miners' union, at which it was stated that the officials of the coal company were willing to discontinue the operation of the strip mine and the union officials were willing that the workmen employed therein should be permitted to depart in safety. The substance of of this agreement was transmitted over the telephone to Superintendent McDowell at the Strip mine.
      Nevertheless, at the break of day the following morning firing began in a heavy volume from close proximity. the attacking party having crept up under cover of darkness, they were sufficiently close to permit of a parley and after a time a spokesman for the strip mine workers asked to speak to the leader.
      A long range conversation was held and it was agreed by a spokesman from the attacking party that safe conduct would be accorded the men if they laid down their arms and would march out with hands up.
      This was done and from behind the earth embankments created by the steam shovel operators came a great number of armed men and more from th surrounding hills until the forty-seven surrendering men were surrounded by many hundreds of men, mostly armed.
      The captive men were marched down the road toward Herrin in double file. After they had marched about one mile, Superintendent McDowell, being crippled and unable to keep up with the procession, was taken aside by members of the mob and shot to death.
      The remainder of the captives were marched on the public road and were stopped at the power house of the Interurban railroad, about three miles from Herrin. Here a change of leadership took place and the man who had guaranteed the safety of the men who had surrendered was deposed and another leader installed.
      The new commander ordered the captive men to march into the woods adjacent to the power house. Here the new leader directed that only those in the crowd who had guns should follow into the woods and those who were unarmed should remain without.
      The surrendered men were then marched some 200 yards back of the power house, to the vicinity of a barbed wire fence, where they were told they would be given a chance to run for their lives, under fire.
      the firing began immediately, and thirteen of the forty-seven non-union men were killed and most of the others severely wounded.
      The mob pursued those who had escaped, and two were hung to trees, six were tied together with a rope about their necks, and marched through the streets of Herrin to an adjacent farm, where they were shot by the mob and the throats of three were cut. One of the six survived.
      The atrocities and cruelties of the members are beyond the power of words to describe. A mob is always cowardly, but the savagery of this mob in its relentless brutality is almost unbelievable. The indignities heaped upon the dead did not end until their bodies were interred in unknown graves.
      On the first day of the attack on the mine two union miners were killed by the answering fire from the men in the strip mine, and another so seriously injured as to die subsequently from his wounds.
      It has been difficult for this grand jury to determine who fired the shots from the strip mine which caused the deaths of the union miners. When asked to present evidence to the grand jury which would tend to fix responsibility, counsel for the miners' union announced that they would lend no aid to the grand jury.
      The grand jury has made no attempt to determine the equities between the operators and the miners in the strike controversy. It has had but the sole though of bringing to the bar of justice the persons who committed the crimes which have brought such universal criticism upon the people of Williamson County, Illinois.
      Without discrimination, we feel keenly the horror of the tragedy. We protest, however, against the intimation that all the people of Williamson County are lawless and un-American. The development of the mining industry in Williamson County and the surrounding counties has tremendously increased the population within the last decade.
      All of the adjoining counties contributed their quota of marauders, and the entire shame of the inhuman murders should not rest upon Williamson County alone.
      It is true the electorate of the county is responsible for those of its supine, weak and cowardly officials who permitted the disorders to grow from desultory rioting into a hideous massacre. those evils can be corrected by the great majority of the population who believe in law and order asserting themselves and longer refusing to be intimidated by a disorderly minority.
      The adjutant general's office and the sheriff's office alternated in passing responsibility with neither taking decisive action to prevent disorders and protect property.
      The ease with which firearms were obtained causes the grand jury to believe that legislation should be enacted to regulate or prohibit the manufacture or indiscriminate sale of firearms.
      We condemn the laxity of the local police in the various cities wherein stores were looted for firearms without interference by them.
      We commend the state's attorney of Williamson County, Delos Duty, for his courage and fidelity to his oath of office, and we express our gratitude to the Attorney General of Illinois and his efficient assistants whose aid has greatly facilitated the tremendous tasks confronting the grand jury.
      In concluding this report the grand jury begs leave to state that it has indicted some forty persons for murder, fifty-eight for rioting, and five for assault to murder, and your jury asks leave for a recess of thirty days for the purpose of completing its labors. The grand jury is deeply grateful to the many representative, law-abiding citizens of Williamson County, for their assistance and encouragement in its efforts to enforce the law fearlessly and impartially.
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Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Friday, September 29, 1922, Page 1
Judge Hartwell To Form Docket Today; Trial Planned for November
(By the Associated Press)
      MARION, Sept. 28.-- Decision to open the trials of the 74 men indicted for murder, conspiracy and rioting in connection with the Herrin mine killing was reached late today after a long conference between Judge Hartwell of Williamson county circuit court, and attorney of the prosecution, and the defense.
      After the conference Judge Hartwell announced that he would form a docket tomorrow morning unless unforeseen things came about to change his plans. The trial will be held on the Monday in the middle of November, not later than November 15.
Try 48 at Once
      The 48 men charged with the murder on one indictment in connection, with the death of Howard Hussman of Huntington, Ind., will be the first to go to trial in connection with the killing of the 19 non-union workers at the strip mine of the Southern Illinois coal company June 21 and 22 under present plans.
      The indictment charges that Hussman was shot, stabbed and beaten by all of the 48 men indicted for murder. Hussman died June 21 in a hospital at Herrin.
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Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Saturday, September 30, 1922, Page 1
Prosecution Confident of Obtaining Conviction of Miners Involved in Summer Massacre
(By the Associated Press)
      MARION, Sept. 29. -- The state of Illinois is prepared to go to trial next week in the cases of the 74 men indicted in connection with the Herrin mine killings last June, the states attorney of Williamson county declared tonight. The trials were set to begin November 13 by Judge Hartwell of Williamson county Circuit Court today after attorneys for the defense asked that they be postponed until next January. The states attorney said that the prosecution was confident of obtaining conviction with the large amount of evidence collected and for that reason was ready to open the trial as soon as possible. Judge Hartwell, selected November 13 as a compromise between the requests of the opposing attorneys.

Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
Tuesday, October 3, 1922, Page 2
Special Jury Draws Censure for Criticism of State and County Officials on Negligence
(By the Associated Press)
      MARION, Ill., Oct. 2. -- The regular grand jury of Williamson county, which today censured the special grand jury for, criticizing state and county officials for alleged negligence of duty in connection with the Herrin mine killings, returned only two indictments after investigating the riot in which nineteen non-union workers and three union miners were killed.
Defends Special Jury
      The indictments were returned against Luther Horsley and Oscar Greathouse, who was charged with larceny in connection with the theft of mine property after the disorder.
      A. Townsend, foreman of the regular inquisitorial body in a statement tonight said that, while he finds the report does not express his feelings, he felt the special grand jury was justified in its report.
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Coal Age Vol. 22, No. 14; October 5, 1922
Miners Win First Skirmish in Herrin Case
      Lawyers of the United Mine workers of America have won a point in the arrangements for the trial of the men the grand jury indicted for participating in the Herrin massacre of June 22. Judge D. T. Hartwell decided late last week that the forty-eight men held under a blanket indictment for the death of Howard Huffman, one of the slaughtered non-union strip miners, shall be tried first. Attorney General Brundage, in charge of the prosecution, argued that Otis Clark, the first man indicted for murder, ought to be tried first. He feels that it will be more difficult to get a conviction of forty-eight men than one, since more local prejudices will be involved and the job of the jury will, by that sign, be more difficult.
      The miners wished to postpone the first case until after the first of the year, in order, they said, to interfere as little as possible with coal production by the large number of men involved in the case and to permit the preparation of evidence. The prosecution wanted to start the trials at once. Judge Hartwell compromised on this point by setting the date for Nov. 13.
      Though the grand jury returned 214 indictments in all, they involved but seventy-nine men, for most of the men were indicted under several charges. Practically all of the seventy-nine are now in the law's hands either as prisoners charged with murder, eight of whom are in jail after bonds had been refused, or released under bonds ranging from $20,000 down to $1,000.
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Coal Age Vol. 22, No. 17; October 26, 1922
Forty-eight More Men Indicted for Murder In Connection with Herrin Massacre
      The special grand jury at Marion, Ill., finished its work on the Herrin massacre case Monday, Oct. 23, by indicting forty-eight more men for the murder of Ignace Kubenis, a victim who died of wounds since the jury recessed last month. Circuit Judge Hartwell says the indictments are illegal because returned at a term of court subsequent to the one at which the jury was empanelled. State's Attorney Delos Duty disagrees with him.
      Only a few witnesses were heard on Monday, and they are said to have told of wounds inflicted on Kubanis, and which are said to have resulted in his death. this makes 434 persons the grand jury has indicted in connection with the rioting in which twenty-three men were killed.

Coal Age Vol. 22, No. 20; November 16, 1922
Much Legal Jockeying Marks Early Stages Of Trial in Herrin Massacre Case
      Trial of men indicted for murder in connection with the Herrin massacre in Williamson County, Illinois, is getting under way amid difficulties. Most of the men in the venire of 130 avoided jury duty in the case on one excuse or another as a starter. When the Attorney General moved to nol prosse the indictments against 41 of the 46 men the grand jury held for the murder of Howard Huffman, A. W. Kerr, chief counsel of the defense, employed by the miners' union, insisted that a jury be impaneled at once and instructed to find 41 "not guilty" and to release them. The objection was overruled and 5 men of the original 46 will stand trial for Hoffman's death as soon as a jury is chosen.
      Then the defense moved for a continuance of the case to the next term of court, but Judge Hartwell insisted that as both sides originally said they would be ready now, the trial should proceed. Next the defense moved that all the indictments be quashed on the ground that the grand jury that returned the indictments was selected by sheriff's deputies instead of by the sheriff himself, that 26 jurors instead of 23 were summoned and that the jury had been unduly influenced during the deliberations by statements printed in the newspapers. Judge Hartwell reserved decision.
      Attorney Kerr for the miners demanded the right to question the prosecution as to the source of the funds which private organizations have put into Attorney Brundage's hands, in lieu of state funds which are not available because governor Small cut so deeply into the Attorney General's appropriation. Judger Hartwell denied this motion. With the removal of all objections and motions tending to delay the trial, the case is ready to proceed. Early this week it was thought that the choosing of the jury would be resumed. How long it will take to impanel a full jury remains to be seen. Frank Farrington, president of the Illinois district of the United Mine Workers of America, and State Senator W. L. Sneed, a subdistrict president, are both in attendance at the trial.
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Coal Age Vol. 22, No. 21; November 23, 1922
Union Miners on Jury at Herrin Trial
      Selection of a jury to try the first six prisoners held for murder in connection with the "Herrin riot" of June 22 goes slowly on. There are now seven men sworn in to serve. some of them are union miners. Members of the union which is defending the prisoners have been accepted in the face of the state's best efforts to guard against that. Judge D. T. Hartwell, presiding, has ruled that mere membership does not disqualify a man. the recent special union assessment, which operators are morally sure is for the Herrin prosecution though they cannot prove this, is being paid by every union man who goes on the jury. The venire from which the jurymen are being chosen is made up largely of miners -- so largely in fact, that it is said five out of six are members.

The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Saturday, December 9, 1922, Page 1
Williamson County Is Ready For Greatest Trial In Ill. History
      Marion, Ill., Dec. 9. -- Williamson was preparing today to witness the greatest criminal trial in the history of the Illinois coal fields -- the adjudication of five union miners accused of murder during the "Herrin Massacre" June.
      With the jury selected and duly , sworn, and an order issued by Circuit Judge D. T. Hartwell for court to reconvene Wednesday morning for the opening statements, farmers, miners, merchants and housewives -- were laying plans to let their work wait while they looked on at the great legal battle.
      After five weeks of tedious quizzing of veniremen, the jury was finally completed yesterday and the stage was set for the taking of testimony. The trial-said by union sympathizers to be on out and out conflict between nine operators and union labor was ready to begin.
      Counsel for the prosecution had apparently scored an initial victory when the list of jurors was posted, showing eleven farmers and one miner. Several of the men listed as farmers, however, are "part time" miners and others are closely related to union miners.
      While Judge Hartwell was hearing petitions for several minor injunctions today, opposing attorneys were preparing their opening statements to the jury. State's Attorney Delos Duty was expected to open the case for the prosecution. Angus W. Kerr, chief miners' counsel, will be in charge of the defense.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Thursday, December 14, 1922, Page 12
Much Sparring Is Expected As Witnesses Are Examined -- Heated Arguments Appear Early
      Marion, Ill., Dec. 14. -- Williamson county was alert today In anticipation of spectacular developments in the first Herrin massacre trial.
      Heated arguments between opposing attorneys during yesterday's session of court, 'bespoke a furious battle when the court settles into routine of examining witnesses.
      The decision of Judge D. T. Hartwell in ruling that Frank Farrington, president of the Illinois United Mine workers, would not be allowed to "tell the history of the gunmen who shot down union miners." as suggested by Defense Counsel A. W. Kerr in his opening statement was received by the spectators as a strong blow.
      Kerr had told the jury that FarrIngton "knew the history of those men and would tell the jury of many other acts of violence." After a storm of objections from the ranks of prosecuting attorneys, Hartwell ruled that Farrington would not be allowed to testify on that subject.
      Following the burst of oratory yesterday in which State's Attorney Delos Duty and Defense Attorney Kerr delivered their opening statements to the jury, the opposing attorneys entrenched for a long battle of legalities in tho examining of witnesses.
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Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois
Friday Evening, December 15, 1922, Page 1
      Marion, Ill., Dec. 15. -- "This is purely a murder trial and has nothing to do with a prolonged conflict between coal operators and miners."
      This statement made by State's Attorney Delos Duty in his opening address to the jury became the chief bone of contention as the third day of the Herrin massacre trial opened today.
      The prosecution leading in the examination quizzed witnesses rigidly with a view of proving the five defendants were present in the mob that committed atrocities in and about Herrin on June 22. The defense firing a sharp series of questions on the cross examination was seeking to connect the rioting with the grievances of the union men against "monied interests and coal operators.
      After the state had drawn a long line of testimony from George Harrison in which the witness said he was a farmer residing near Herrin and had identified Bert Grace as one of the gang of men which ran across his farm yard just before Harrison found a victim of gun shot lying in his pasture, the defense took up the quizzing of Harrison.
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The Cairo Bulletin, Cairo, Illinois,
Volume 54, Number 360,
Saturday Morning, December 16, 1922, Page 1
Death March Through Town with Captives and Hunting Down of Fugitives Described
Newspaper Man Tells of Threats When He Attempted to Give Victims Water
By The Associated Press
      Marion, Ill., Dec. 15. -- The attack on the Herrin "strip mines", the death march through the town with the captives, and the hunting down of fugitives, was described today by witnesses at the trial of live men in connection with the killings.
      All but one of the defendants were named as having been seen in possession of a gun during the progress of the rioting, but all the witnesses so far heard, declared they could not identify any person they had seen in the act of shooting at the victims.
      In an argument between opposing counsel regarding the exclusion of a portion of the testimony, to which the defense objected, Judge D. T. Hartwell declared the, conspiracy charges, warranted the widest investigation of the facts In the case.
      "I want the whole thing to come out and I do not want to exclude any testimony," the court declared in ruling on the testimony.
      The defendants pointed out as having been seen with guns are Otis Clark, Bert Grace, Joseph Carnagh and Leva Mann. The name of Peter Miller the fifth defendant, has not yet appeared in any of the testimony.
      Donald M. Ewing, a Chicago newspaper man, who wrote the first account of the killing for the Associated Press, picked Grace from among the defendants as a man who had threatened him with a gun when he attempted to bring a drink of water to two wounded men who were lying on a sunbaked road surrounded by a crowd of armed men just outside of Herrin.
      The witness said there were six dead or wounded men lying In the road, all of them bound together by a single rope tied about their necks.
      "Grace put his foot on one of the wounded men and pushed," the, witness declared and quoted the defendant as saving with a curse, "you'll get no water here."
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The Cairo Bulletin, Cairo, Illinois,
Volume 54, Number 361,
Sunday Morning, December 17, 1922, Page 1
By The Associated Press
      Marion, III., Dec. 16. -- Sworn to protect the lives of their members who have testified for the prosecution at the trial of five men charged with murder in connection with the Herrin mine riots, a secret organization of farmers today was reported to have been formed in Williamson and Johnson counties, according to investigators from the office of Attorney General Brundage.
      "For the life of every farmer taken as the result of his testimony in the trial, we will exact a toll of 10 lives of his attackers," was said to have been the word spread broadcast over the countryside.
      One of the witnesses heard just before the adjournment over Saturday and Sunday, was said by one of the state's counsel to have broken down and wept before taking the stand and to have pleaded that he be excused.
      Both the defense and prosecution expressed satisfaction today with the course the trial bad taken.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois,
Monday, December 18, 1922, Page 7
Farmer and Wife Tell Vivid Story of Massacre -- Saw Men Lead Foreman Away and Supposedly Shoot Him
      Marion, Ill., Dec. 18. -- The prosecution in the first Herrin massacre trial today tightened its net of evidence around Otis Clark, alleged ring-leader of the rioting in which twenty-three men were killed at the Lester Strip mine last June.
      A vivid portrayal of the death march from Lester mine early after dawn on the morning of June 22 was pictured by George Nelson, Williamson county farmer, and his wife. Lula Nelson who were the first witnesses to take the stand In circuit court here today.
      Nelson whose farm joins the property of the Lester mine, told the jury he was standing in front of his house when a mob of more than one hundred came along the road leading more than a dozen men, who appeared frightened and haggard.
      "The first man I recognized was C. K. McDowell. superintendent of the mine," said Nelson.
      "When McDowell stumbled at the railroad, crossing One of the mob struck him over the head with the butt of a revolver. Another man pushed a shotgun in the small of his back and shoved him along.
      "As the crowd came closer I could see that McDowell was bleeding. The crowd stopped in front of my house. I was standing about eight |feet from the road.
      "Somebody in the mob said 'it's no use taking him any further, a moment later two men , grabbed McDowell by the arm and led him off to the south. One of these men had a gun. It was not long until I heard some shots and soon the two members of the mob came back without McDowell."
      The witness was asked if he knew either of the men that led McDowell away.
      After showing extreme reluctance were Otis Clark and Oscar Howard" he said.
      "Which one had the gun?" he was asked.
      "It was Clark who had the gun," he answered. "A little later I saw Otis Clark and wife sitting in an automobile out in front of my house. Howard was with them. They drove away toward Herrin.
      The testimony of Mrs. Nelson corroborated her husband's story. She identified Mrs. Otis Clark but said she did not recognize any of the men In the mob.
      The state was apparently basing a good amount of its case against Clark on the testimony of Nelson and hls wife.
      McDowell, the crippled superintendent of the Lester mine was the first of the men to be killed by the mob.
      Nineteen, other non-union miners met death shortly after.
      Unable to continue the pace because of his wooden leg, McDowell stopped In the middle of the road and asked to be killed, according to alleged eye witnesses who have not been placed on the stand.
      "l know you're going to kill me. Do it now because I can't walk like this any farther," McDowell is said to have told loaders of the mob.
      McDowell's body was discovered by sheriff's deputies later that day in a little field a few hundred feet from the road. Wounds wore found in his head and cheek and knife wounds were discovered in his throat.
      Counsel for the defense apparently willing to allow the testimony of Nelson and his wife to go before the jury, offered few objections and cross-examined the witness very briefly.
      A. W. Kerr, in his opening statement to the jury declared he would put "alibi" witnesses on the stand who would prove that none of the five defendants were in the mob.
      Four of the live accused men have already been identified by witnesses its members of the crowd of 500 that led the non-union miners from the Lester mine down the country roads to Herrin through the streets of the little mining town and out to the Herrin cemetery, stopping occasionally to kill a few of their victims.
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The Cairo Bulletin, Cairo, Illinois,
Volume 54, Number 364,
Tuesday Morning. 19 December 1922, Page 1
Doctor Saw Six Unarmed Men shot Down by Mob in Front of Herrin Cemetery
Last of Five Men on Trial Named as Having Been Seen with Gun Among Rioters
      Marion, Dec. 18. -- Dr. O. F. Shipman testified today at the trial of five men in connection with the Herrin riot that he was an eye witness of the shooting down of six unarmed men by a mob in front of the Herrin cemetery the day of the killing.
      Two other witnesses, Mr. and Mrs. George Nelson, testified that they had seen a crowd of armed men drive 30 or 40 unarmed prisoners from the "strip" mines where the trouble started, past their farm near the mine. R. O. Greer, former mayor of Herrin, also testified that he had seen the prisoners walk from the mine and that he saw automobiles from Missouri, Indiana, Kentucky and other states.
      Dr. Shipman testified that he had followed the mob and its bleeding, pleading prisoners, a mile and a half through the streets of Herrin to the cemetery, that there had ben a volley of shots and that he saw the prisoners drop to the dusty road. The witness testified that a man he could not identify stood over the prostrate victims and emptied the contents of two revolvers into their bodies. He swore that Joe Carnaghi, one of the defendants, had fired into Howard Hoffman's prostrate body and that blood had spurted a foot in the air. Dr. Shipman named Joe Carnaghi and Leva Mann, two of the defendants now on trial, and Percy Hall and Jim Galligan, who have been indicted, but who are nor defendants in the present case.
      The name of Peter Hiller, another of the defendants, who was married in the jail tonight to Anna Campbell, 18 years old, of Marion, was brought into evidence for the first time today. Hiller was the fifth and last defendant who had been mentioned in the testimony as having been seen with guns during the rioting.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 17,
Saturday, December 23, 1922, Page 8
Mine Massacre Jury Is Off for Holidays
      Marion, Ill., Dec. 23. -- After a brief session today jurors in the Herrin massacre trial were turned over to the custody of bailiffs for the Christmas holidays and a recess of court taken until January 2.
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Marion Semi-Weekly Leader, Marion, Illinois
Volume 47, Number 51,
Tuesday, December 26, 1922, Page 1
Oscar Dangbar Saw Henderson Killed After Shots Were Fired at the Mine
      The Lester mine riot trial on Saturday was only a short session, one witness being cross-examined and two witnesses being examined and cross examined. George Dangbar, an old framer refused to be cross-examined by the court and the attitude of open hostility toward the prosecution and his remarks caused so much laughter that Judge Hartwell had to rap for order in the court room.
      Oscar Dangbar. who also saw Jordy Henderson killed, said upon cross-examination that there was firing from outside of the mine near the highway before Henderson was shot.
The Testimony
      Court in the Lester mine riot trial convened promptly at o'clock Saturday morning for its final session this year, Judge Hartwell said as he called the jury into the room, "We won't hold you long today.''
      Ed Grenshave, who was examined by the defense on Friday, was called to the stand the first thing Saturday morning for cross-examination by assistant Attorney General Otis Glenn.
      Ha said that he was at one time as assistant highway commissioner, and knew a good many of the union men, who worked at the mine in removing dirt. His son was one of the men who worked there and who helped cut through the public highway.
      "When did you return home on June 21?"
      "I left Herrin at one o'clock. The manager of the fruit company, where I worked told me I had better go home. I got there at 1:30."
      He said he didn't remember anyone going out on the car with him to Crenshaw. People began coming there about 2 o'clock. He saw a hundred and fifty or more pass, some with revolvers and others with rifles and guns. They were going south toward the strip mine at that time. He said he never saw anyone be knew, with the exception of four neighbors.
      "What happened? Wasn't your house used as a headquarters for the attack?"
      "When the first shots came, the men in the crowd fell flat on the ground. When firing ceased they ran around back of my house. The first firing was from the direction of the mine. There were a hundred or so going toward the mine at that time.
      The witness said he did not see any shots fired into the mine, but after many questions he admitted hearing some shots fired toward the mine.
      "I was about 100 feet from Henderson when he was shot and was the nearest person to him. He had not transacted any business with me that day. He came on foot from the north. He walked up with the crowd, some of whom had rifles, I did not see any weapons on him then. I did not search his body for weapons."
      "You say you saw men on the embankment at the mine?" asked Attorney Glenn.
      "Yes; I was about three-eights of a mile from the mine. I saw something carried up on the embankment and someone put a bush up in front of it. Anyone could have seen it put up there. I saw shots coming from that point later in the day.
      The witness said he did not see the march of the prisoners.
      When he left home that afternoon he said that there might have been 500 around his house, some of whom were armed. That was after Henderson was killed. The witness said that he did not hear any threats made against the strip miners by this mob.
      "What are you being paid to testify?"
      "I don't know. I was promised my expenses," replied the witness as he was excused.
George Dangbar
      George Dangbar, nearly 80 years old and rather deaf, said that he lived near the Lester strip mine and that the mine reservoir was on the farm he had rented.
      "Conditions were alright until the guards came." he said.
      When did they come?" asked George Stone.
      "About June 15, after the union men were fired. I saw six or eight of them in a truck going through my private road. They were armed with revolvers and were going to the mine pump house."
      The witness, leaning forward in his chair, told of how the guards threw cigarettes down In his barnyard and how be came to the sheriff in Marion on Saturday before the riot and said he wanted that stopped. He told how one of the guards told them of being, a guard for thirteen years and how could stand off 500 men himself.
      On , the morning of June 21 , the witness said, the guards, came to him for a drink and later told him if he had refused it be would have been the first one the guards would have "plugged."
      When Assistant Attorney General Otis Glenn started to cross-examine Mr. Dangbar he refused to answer, saying: "I don't- want to be questioned. Your shorthand reporter has everything I said. Being very hostile to the prosecution, he was excused without being made to force him to answer questions.
Oscar Dangbar
      Oscar Dangbar, 24, son of the old man who was just excused by the state because of his hostility, was the next witness called. On June 21 he said he was at Ed Crenshaw's home, where Henderson was shot, but did not see any arms upon, the deceased.
      In cross-examination, he said he was about 100 feet from Henderson when he was shot. Henderson wore no coat when he came up with a crowd of 100 or 150, and the crowd was traveling in the general direction of the mine and some of them were probably firing before he was killed, said the witness. He said that there were shotguns, rifles and revolvers in the crowd.
      None of the guards ever, assaulted the witness, but he said he had a revolver with him at that time, but took no part in the shooting.
      Judge Hartwell announced at 10:10 that court would be adjourned until 9 o'clock Tuesday morning, January 2. The jurors were turned over to the custody of Bailiffs John Shafer and Roland Odum.
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Marion Semi-Weekly Leader, Marion, Illinois
Volume 47, Number 51,
Tuesday, December 26, 1922, Page 2
Attorney A. W. Kerr Makes Statement to the Press After The Court Recesses -- Will Hold Court Friday and Saturday
      Thursday afternoon the state in the mine riot trial rested, confident that it had presented its case forcefully enough to obtain convictions of the five men on trial. Attorney A. W. Kerr for the defense asked for time to prepare some written motions and said that they would have witnesses ready to start the presentation of evidence on Friday morning. The state called only 39 witnesses into the stand on its seven days of actual trial.
      That the defense feels the prosecution failed to make a case against any of the defendants is the statement of A. W Kerr, chief counsel for the United Mine Workers.
      Judge D. T. Hartwell announced that there would be court on Friday and Saturday and that they would then probably recess until January 2nd.
      States Attorney Delos Duty is suffering from a sore tooth but was feeling better on Thursday.
      The following written statement, in part, was made by Attorney Kerr on Thursday afternoon after the state had rested:
      A. W. Kerr chief counsel for the defense was called, was called upon at the conclusion of the case for the prosecution for a statement. He was asked along what line the testimony of the defense would be. He said the testimony was already indicated in his opening statement to the jury; that in addition to this, however, the defendants expected to prove by overwhelming evidence that the guards or gunmen were the aggressors and brought on any attack that was made upon them by their acts of provocation and challenge; that in this connection there will be put into the record a long list of vicious, willful and criminal acts upon their part all in the nature of assaults and insults.
      Mr. Kerr was quite free to state that the testimony of some of the people's witnesses would be offset in very vigorous fashion. He made special reference to the testimony of Donald M. Ewing, of whom it is said that the defense would prove to satisfaction of everybody that the incident of the so-called refusal to give water at the Herrin Cemetery never took place. That Bert Grace had no connection with it; that while Mr. Ewing, the reporter, says that he reached there at !0:30 o;clock, the positive, convincing proof will show that the bodies of the men had been removed almost an hour prior to that time; that this as well as many other of the so-called harrowing details put into evidence by the prosecution were creatures of vivid imaginations and were not facts. He also stated that the testimony of one of the state's witnesses who claimed to have been an easy onlooker of the whole march from Herrin to the cemetery was a pure fabrication; that as a matter of fact that witness was not there at all; that he has been during his residence in Herrin a persecutor of the miners and that his object in testifying was to obtain the reward offered by the prosecution; that the defense will show that another witness deliberately falsified; that his character is so bad that he was expelled from a church in the community in which he lived; that his reputation amongst the neighbors and in the neighborhood of which he spent his life is such that they would not believe him under oath. That a third witness is of like stripe with that of the second witness mentioned and acted in concert with him in assisting the prosecution in this case. That their reputation is such as to bear the absolute proof that they were actuated from an ulterior motive.
      Mr. Kerr insisted that the prosecution in this case very adroitly denied the defendants a proper opportunity to cross-examine the guard witness, Bernard F. Jones, by, on direct examination, confining his testimony to thew happenings on the day when the gunmen where killed and by reason thereof excluding the cross-examination as to happenings on previous occasions which led to the killing of the union miners and, as he claimed, was in fact the real criminal act in this case and thereby showing the connection of Jones and his confederates, McDowell and the other gunmen, including Howard Hoffman.
      Mr. Kerr further said that as an evidence of his charge made in the opening statement that those who prosecuted in this case were extremely careless in the selection of defendants; that the defense would establish beyond peradventure, by hundreds of witnesses, farmers and laborers and others of the best citizens of Williamson county that the defendants now on trial had no possible connection with the killings charged. He said also that it was the experience of the attorneys for the defense that when prosecutions were privately financed and privately conducted that the good faith and honesty which surrounded a prosecution by public officers with public moneys was usually lacking and that it is lacking in this case.
      Mr. Kerr also expressed the belief that the case of the prosecution had completely fallen down.
      Mr. Kerr evidenced no bitterness because he said labor almost always expected it but he took serious umberage at the attitude of the press generally and particularly in the headline featuring of the stories while the case of the prosecution was being put in.
      The defense in this case is still of the mind that this is the case to awaken the public mind of American to a continuance of the use of gunmen in American Industrial disputes and a belief was expressed that this case would be helpful in offering such proof of their harmful activities, as to, in the future, put a stop to the use of private armies of armed gunmen and murderers, always directed against striking workmen. this was expressed with a great deal of force and conviction.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 19
December 27, 1922, Page 1
Courtroom at Herrin Massacre Trial in Marion
      Th only photograph of the trial of union miners at Marion, Ill., allowed to be taken is this, showing the courtroom scene where five men are facing the charge of murder in connection with the Herrin mine massacres of last June. Principals in the picture, identified by number, are:
(2) Senator Otis Glenn, prosecuting attorney;
(3) C. W. Middlekauff, assistant United States attorney general;
(4) Delos Duty, state's attorney;
(5) Ray Rendon, assistant state's attorney;
(6) George Carter, assistant state's attorney;
(7) George Sherell. assistant attorney general;
(8) John Layman, deputy sheriff;
(9) William Seeber, defense attorney;
(10) A. C. Lewis, defense attorney;
(11) George R. Stone, defense attorney;
(12) A. W. Ketr, chief defense counsel;
(13) D. T. Cook, defense attorney;
(14) Leonard Stern, county clerk;
(16) Thomas Sweeney, defense investigator;
(17) Richard Odom, bailiff;
(20) Colonel S. N. Hunter, witness.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois,
Saturday, December 30, 1922, Page 3
Send Check Today To Help Prosecute Herrin Riot Men
      A check for $114 is being forwarded today by the Chamber of commerce to the Illinois Chamber, as Monmouth's share in the fifty thousand dollar fund raised to help the state prosecute those responsible for the Herrin massacre.
      This amount is being raised by popular subscription among the members of the Chamber of Commerce throughout the state. At the time of the massacre the State lacked the necessary funds to prosecute the case. The State Chamber of Commerce immediately sent out letters to all the local chambers in Illinois, asking that these funds were raised by popular subscription among the members, with the result that the amount was obtained and Monmouth's quota is being forwarded today.


Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois,
Wednesday January 3, 1923, Page 1
Guard Terrorizing Described By Ten Herrin Witnesses
      Marion, Jan. 2 -- The holding and searching of peaceable travelers and the alleged terrorizing of the surrounding country side by armed guards of the lester strip mines was described by ten witnesses for the defense at the reopening of the trial of five men charged with murder in connection with the Herrin riot today. Only one of the witnesses, Charles David, a farmer and miner testified to actual assault by any of the mine guards.
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Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois,
Thursday Evening, January 4, 1923
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill., Jan. 4. -- "Guards at the Lester strip mine opened fire with a machine gun on a group of Williamson county citizens who were going to arrange a truce with the mine company," Grover Kelly, union miner testified today in the trial of five men accused of murdering Howard Hoffman, during the Herrin massacre of last June.
      "There was a bunch of men hanging around the mine," Kelly told the jury. "Some one suggested we send some men to make peaceable negotiations with the guards in the mine pit. Two men volunteered and started on their mission.
      "As they approached the mine they were met by a volley of shots from a point of one of the embankments thrown up by the workers."
      "The fire was coming from behind a big bush that looked like the top of a tree. The shots were coming so fast it must have been a machine gun."
      The scene described by the witness corroborates previous testimony. One witness testified seeing the gun in the office of the mine company before it was put into service.
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Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois,
Tuesday Evening, January 9, 1923, Page 1
Motions By Defense In Herrin Trial Overruled
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill., Jan. 9. -- Motion by the defense in the Herrin massacre trial to allow submission of evidence against "professional gunmen," as a type of men "who recklessly commit murder without fear of conviction," was overruled by Judge D. T. Hartwell. The motion was read by Chief Defense Counsel A. W. Kerr out of presence of the jury.
      Kerr also filed a petition asking permission of the court to present testimony showing that the Illinois Chamber of Commerce is "an anti-labor organization." The petition was overruled by the court.
Marion, Ill. Jan. 9. -- M. L. Trotter, first witness for the defense as circuit court in the first Herrin massacre trial reconvened today, testified he saw Joe Carnaghi, one of the five defendants, carrying a milk pail on the morning of June 22. Trotter's testimony was introduced by the defense in an attempt to show Carnaghi could have had no part in the killing of Howard Hoffman.
      Dr. O. F. Shipman, star witness for the state, had previously named Carnaghi as a member of the mob that marched thru Herrin leading six prisoners to the Herrin cemetery, to shoot them down before a firing squad. Three defense witnesses corroborated Trotter's testimony.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 34,
Monday January 15, 1923, Page 1
New Victim of Mine Tragedy Dies Sunday
(By United Press)
      Chicago, Ill., Jan. 15. -- The toll of the Herrin massacre was increased one today by the death of Sidney Morrison, 25.
      Morrison, a mine guard, was hurt in the battle which preceded the surrender of the Lester strip mine. Two operations tailed to remove the bullet which lodged in his spine.
      He was married last Monday to Miss Rosela Lawson, Joliet, who nursed him during his long fight with paralysis.
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Witnesses In Herrin Trial Threatened
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill., Jan. 15. -- Three shots from unknown assailants were fired Saturday night at the home of George Nelson, prosecution's witness in the Herrin massacre trial that was going on today. Nelson said he received anonymous letters threatening death.
      The automobiles stopped in front of Nelson's home alter midnight. They stopped and a few minutes later three shots from the rear of the house lodged in the door panel.
      Nelson was one of the state's four witnesses who received letters threatening their lives unless they returned to the court house at Marion and admitted they swore to lies.
      Nelson's brother was accosted recently by a band of heavy robed men with a hangman's noose.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 36,
Wednesday January 17, 1923, Page 1
Herrin Massacre Trial is Likely to Go to the Jury on Thursday
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill., Jan. 17. -- District Attorney Delos Duty, fiery orator of Williamson county, today declared the victims of the Herrin massacre were "shot down like pigeons in a back yard." in making his closing address to the jury.
      Duty, In appealing for a conviction, did not refer to any particular punishment bur confined his address to a sweeping arraignment of the five accused men.
      "We have shown beyond a question of doubt, by a preponderance of witnesses, that these five men were members of the mob," Duty said. "Every member of that mob which shot down these men is guilty of murder. Every man in that mob was as guilty as the one who fired the fatal shot, They were conspirators."
      Duty declared that the Southern Illinois Coal company was within its right in hiring guards o defend its property.
      "After an all night watch, the men in the nine hoisted a white flag and surrendered, like men." Duty declared. "They laid down their guns and came out as helpless as babies.
      ''Then this mob, of which these five men were undoubtedly members, took the helpless members and murdered them in cold blood."
      The case is expected to go to the jury Thursday.
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Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois,
Thursday Evening, January 18, 1923
Not Unlawful For Non-union Men to Mine Coal, Court Instructs.
Declares it Unnecessary to Prove That Defendants Actually Fired Shots That Killed Hoffman.
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill. Jan. 18. -- Twelve men hold the fate of the five defendants in the Herrin massacre trial today. The case went to the jury at 11:10 a. m.
      Before sending the jury to deliberate Judge D. T. Hartwell read lengthy instructions to the 12 men, declaring "that it is not against the law of Illinois for a man to mine coal without belonging to the United Mine Workers of America, and if a man be assaulted and killed for this and no other reason, the killing is unlawful.
      "If these defendants have been shown by the evidence to have committed or taken any part in such killing, it is your duty to return a verdict of guilty," the court instructed the jury.
      The court instructed the jury that it was unnecessary for the defendants to have actually fired the shots that killed Howard Hoffman, in order to be found guilty.
      "If one of the accused men committed the crime charged in this indictment and if other defendants stood by, aided, or encouraged the crime, it is your duty to find all of the defendants guilty," the court declared.
      Opposing attorneys had submitted 98 instructions to Judge Hartwell. The majority were rejected, and many were materially modified by the court.
      "It is murder or nothing," Hartweell said. Your verdict is to be returned separately for each of the five defendants."
      "You are to fix a penalty of death, imprisonment for life, or a for a period for years not less than 14, if you find any or all of the defendants guilty."
      Six hundred spectators were present while the instructions were read and the case presented to the jury.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 38,
Friday, January 19, 1923, Page 1
After Being Out for 26 Hours Jurors Come Into Court
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill., Jan. 19. -- With the jury in the Herrin massacre trial out for more than 24 hours, a growing crowd of miners gathered in the public square.
      The bailiffs in charge of the jury will be called into conference today with attorneys, representing the state and defense, Judge Hartwell announced.
      The judge indicated he would hold the jury one week if necessary, unless the bailiffs reported a hopeless deadlock.
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      Marion, Ill., Jan. 19. -- The five assassins in the first Herrin massacre trial were acquitted today of the murder of Howard Hoffman. The verdict was delivered at 2:00 p. m., after the jury had deliberated 26 hours.
      The accused men, Otis Clark, Peter Miller, Bert Grace, Love Mann and Joseph Carneger had been brought to trial on charges of murdering Hoffman during the riots about the Lester strip mine last June
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      Twenty-two men were killed in the Herrin massacre on June 21-22 of last year, when union sympathizers and non-union workers clashed in one of the bloodiest industrial battles in the history of the nation.
      "Bloody Williamson county," scene of the battle, earned its nickname from the violence and bloodshed which has marked its records for more than a century.
      The trouble at Herrin started when non-union miners were shipped in to mine coal at the Lester mine owned and operated by W. J. Lester, president of the Southern Illinois coal company. Union miners were on strike at the time.
      The miners were protected by armed guards, who according to testimony at the trial, "abused, assaulted and robbed" farmers and miners living near the mine.
      Feeling, always strong against non-union men, was fanned to fever heat by alleged actions of the guards.
      The miners arranged a meeting in the woods, near the mine, to discuss the situation. As they were talking and automobile bearing non-union miners from the railroad station came along the road. The truck was fired on and three passengers wounded.
      The news of the first bloodshed spread rapidly and a mob quickly formed. A few hours later hundreds of miners and their sympathizers marched down on the non-union mine. Two miners who attempted to effect a truce were fired upon and one was killed.
      Angered by the attack the mob surrounded the mien and poured in volley and volley of shots. The firing and reports of the clash brought scores of reinforcements to the miners. The battle continued throughout the afternoon and night.
      During the night many of the besieged men slipped from the mine and escaped. Forty-eight, barricaded in box cars, held out until dawn and then surrendered on the promise of safe escort to the railroad.
      They lined up and the "death march" started.
      Leaders harangued the mob as the marchers plodded along. Finally C. K. McDowell, crippled superintendent at the mine, collapsed, and refused to go further. He was shot down and killed.
      Panic seized the prisoners and some fled and were shot as they ran. The mob seized others and marched them away to the woods. When the smoke of the battle cleared 19 non-union men had been killed. State authorities found the bodies scattered through fields and woods. Six were shot or stabbed to death in the little Herrin cemetery.
      The investigation by a coroner's jury led to a verdict charging the mine operators with responsibility because they brought armed guards and non-union men into a peaceful community.
      Efforts to bring the men to trial had apparently been dropped when industrial and civic organizations in all parts of the state raised a fund and demanded that murderers be brought to trial.
      Seventy-eight men were indicted on more than 200 counts of murder.
      The five men first placed on trial were charged with murder of Howard Hoffman, a mine guard, who died from wounds received in the battle. They were Otis Clark, Bert Grace, Peter Miller, Levi Mann and Joe Garnaghy.
      The miners through the check off system built up a fund of more than $1,000,000 to be used by the defense. Each of the five defendants received $7.50 each day he was in jail and defense witnesses called away from their work were paid $9.60 a day.
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Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois,
Friday Evening, January 19, 1923, Page 1
Jury Deliberates 26 Hours and 40 Minutes Before Agreeing on Acquittal.
Five Hundred Spectators In the Court Boom Quiet as Finding Is Read This Afternoon.
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill., Jan. 19, -- The five defendants on trial in the Williamson county circuit court, on a charge of murder in connection with the Herrin mine massacre last June were acquitted by the jury this afternoon, after it had deliberated 26 hours and 40 minutes.
      The accused men were: Hillar, Clark, Mann and Caranthi . The hush that had fallen over the court room was broken by no cheer and the audience of 500 spectators was under close watch by the Sheriff and his deputies.
      As the verdict was passed up to Judge Hartwell who read the jury's decision and polled the jury, one by .
      "As I anticipated, there was no trouble and our faith in the decency of Williamson county , was justified by the order shown in court." Sheriff Galligan declared after the crowd departed , from the . court house.
      The jury composed of 11 farmers and one union miner, left immediately and was soon lost in the crowd.
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Daily Illini, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois,
Saturday, January 20, 1923, Page 1
Jury Closes , 27 Hours of Deliberation with Abruptly Declared Verdict
      MARION, Jan. 19. -- Alter nearly 27 hours of deliberation, a jury of Williamson county farmers today delivered a verdict of not guilty in the first case resulting from the killing of 21 non-union workers during the Herrin riot last June.
      The end of the long trial came with such unexpectedness that both spectators and the five defendants who were charged with the murder of Howard Hoffman, one of the victims of the outbreak, appeared dazed .
      DAVENPORT, Jan. 19. -- The state of Illinois will continue its prosecution of those indicted in connection with the Herrin mine riots, Attorney Gen. Edward J. Brundage of Illinois declared today when he was informed that the first five men to be tried had been acquitted of the murder charges.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 39,
Saturday, January 20, 1923, Page 1
To Try Second Case Very Soon Say Officials
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill., Jan. 20. -- Williamson county today faced the second of the murder trials growing out of the Herrin massacre last June.
      "We are ready to prosecute the second case at any time the court is ready." C. W. Middelkauff special attorney general, declared today.
      With the first trial resulting in acquittal of the five defendants, charged with the murder of Harold Hoffman, the state plans to call for the second case, the 18 men indicted tor the murder of Abraham Molkovich during the riots.
      Documents against five of the 18 will be nolle prossed, Middelkauff indicated. The five men tried for the murder of Howard Hoffman will also be defendants in the second case.
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Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois,
Saturday Evening, January 20, 1923, Page 1
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill., Jan. 20. -- Williamson county today faced the second of the murder trials growing out of the Herrin massacre last June.
      "We are ready to prosecute the second case any time the court is ready," C. W. Mlddlekauft, special assistant attorney general declared today.
      With the first trial resulting in acquittal for the five defendants charged with the murder of Howard Hoffman, the state planned to call for its second case, the 18 men indicted for this murder of Antonio Mulkovich during the riots .
Eight Released On Bond
Marion, Ill., Jan. 20 -- Eight men accused of murder in connection with the Herrln , were released from the Williamson county jail on bonds totalling $160,000.
      Nineteen Herrin merchants, bankers and business man stood before Judge Hartwell in circuit court and signed the blanket bonds, $20,000 for each of the men held.
      The second massacre trial in which 33 men will face charges of murdering Antonio Molkovich, was set for February 12.
      The men released today included four of the five men acquitted in the first trial, and four others charged with many counts of murder.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 58,
Monday, February 12, 1923, Page 8
Second Trial For Massacre Begins Today
(By United Press)
      Herrin, Ill., Feb 12. -- The second Herrin massacre trial in which nine union coal miners face charges of murdering Antonio Molkovich, opened today.
      The little court house in Marion was crowded as selection of a jury began. Three of the nine men brought to trial, Otis Clark. Peter Miller and Bert Grace, were defendants in the first riot trial in which all five were acquitted of murdering Howard Hoffman.
      The other defendants are Hugh Willis, Phillips Fontanetta. James Brown, negro, Oscar Howard, Dalla McCree, and Percy Hall.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 59,
Tuesday, February 13, 1923, Page 8
Four Jurors In Herrin Trial Are Accepted
      Marion, Ill., Feb. 13 -- With four prospective jurors, tentatively selected by the state in the second Herrin massacre trial, a new panel of 50 veniremen reported for examination today.
      Sixteen talesmen were examined in the opening session of the trial Monday, the state using two peremptory challenges in this progress.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 73,
Thursday, March 1, 1923, Page 1
Second Herrin Jury Is Secured Today
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill., March 1. -- The jury for the second Herrin massacre trial was completed today.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 76,
Monday, March 5, 1923, Page 6
Second Herrin Case Begun Early Today
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill., March 5. -- Six union miners, one colored, took the defendants' seats in Judge Hartwell's court here today as the second trial in Herrin's mine war case started. The men went to trial on the charge of murdering a non-union miner at the Lester strip mine here last summer, in which three union miners and 22 non-union men were killed.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 79,
Thursday, March 8, 1923, Page 1
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill., March 8. -- An indefinite recess in the second Herrin massacre trial was ordered today by Judge Hartwell to allow Nathan Barnes, one of the jurors, to go to the bedside of his wife who was reported seriously ill.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 89,
Thursday, March 20, 1923, Page 7
Willis Is The Target Today At Riot Trial
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill., March 26. -- Testimony for the prosecution in the second Herrin massacre trial today was directed against Hugh Willis , Herrin union leader.
      Willis, charged with conspiracy to murder in connection with the riots at the Lester strip mine last June, urged a crowd of miners the night before the riot to "remember the sheriff was on their side and not forget him at the next election," according to Dr. O. F. Shipman, star witness for the state.
      Dr. shipman testified Willis said everything was ready for the next day at day light the time when the rioting broke out.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 105,
Saturday, April 7, 1923, Page 1
Following Acquittal of Herrin Massacre Accused Duty Asks Dismissal
(By United Press)
      Marion, Ill., April 7 -- A verdict of not guilty was rendered In the second trial of alleged participants in the Herrin massacre shortly before midnight. The jury took only one ballot on each of the six accused men.
      The decision was returned after six hours and 55 minutes of deliberation. The trial lasted nearly two months.
Marion, Ill., April 7 -- Charges of murder and conspiracy against 76 residents of Williamson county growing out of the Herrin massacre were dismissed by Circuit Judge D. T. Hartwell today.
      Indictments were nolle prossed on request of Delos Duty, state's attorney, following failure to obtain a verdict of guilty in the second trial.
      Indictments charging larceny growing out of rioting in connection with the massacre were allowed to stand and the state may later seek to obtain convictions on these charges.
      "The county had been at tremendous expense already and although we have done our utmost to prove to two juries that these men were murderers and responsible for the riot we have failed." Duty stated in asking the court that these indictments be nolle prossed.
      I am convinced that it will be impossible to get convictions in this county regardless of the evidence."
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 107,
Tuesday, April 10, 1923, Page 1
Special Investigating Commission Has Authority to Cover Every Phase.
(By United Press)
      Springfield, Ill., April 10 -- Steps for beginning the investigation of the Herrin massacre immediately are expected to be taken up by the special Herrin investigating committee is clothed with ample authority to examine witnesses, to secure all document and to inquire into every detail proceeding and following the battles at the mine.
      One question to which the committee will inquire, is the reported official action of Adjutant General Carlos Black, during the two or three days proceeding the massacre as to the reports made to him by his official representative, Colonel Hunter, who reported to Adjutant General Black that troops should be sent at once, but was informed that troops could not be sent unless asked for by the sheriff.
      Now that the criminal phases of the situation have been nulled the legislative committee investigation remains the only means of getting at the real facts back of the massacre.
      The commission is under instructions from Speaker David Shanahan to spare no one in their findings.
      Another feature in the Herrin case in which Democrats are showing some interest is how much of the $75,000 appropriation made to the attorney general for his investigation has been used.
      The bill became a law on March 8 and the money was available on that same dale. Since the sudden ending of the prosecution some legislators have been speculating on how much of this money will be left unused.
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Daily Illini, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois,
Tuesday, May 1 1923, Page 1
Opposition of Law Enforcers Attacked by McCarthy; To Reconvene Thursday
      MARION, Ill., Apr. 30 -- The legislative committee investigating the Herrin riots closed its hearings here today and adjourned to meet in Springfield Thursday morning. Frank McCarthy, chairman, expressed the thanks of the committee to Delos Duty, state's attorney, and Judge D. T. Hartwell , and Sheriff George Galligan. He said the most unpleasant part of their duties was the fact that the law enforcement officers upon whose shoulder's rested the duty of law and order were least willing to testify and held back the facts.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 180,
Friday, July 6, 1923, Page 1
Say Black and Hunter Not to Get the Blame
(By United Press)
      Springfield, Ill., July 6 -- Adjutant General Carlos M. Black and Col. Samuel M. Hunter are held blameless for the Herrin massacre in a minority report of the house investigating committee filed with the clerk of the house.
      Bearing the signatures of State Representatives Carlos Huerin, of Chicago, and William Pierce of Belvidere, the report declares the state militia officers could not anticipate the action of the mob at Herrin and consequently cannot be held responsible for the killing of the 28 men.
      The majority report, filed last Saturday, found both Black and Hunter derelict in their duties and stated if proper judgment had been used troops would have been on the ground and the murder prevented.
      Both the majority and the minority reports agree on the absolute failure of the local officials to enforce the law and give protection to the public.
      The minority report condemns the use of armed guards in time of strike.
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The DeKalb Daily Chronicle, DeKalb, Illinois,
Volume 23, Number 197,
Wednesday, July 25, 1923, Page 6
Miners Not Yet Decided About Running Mine
(By United Press)
      Springfield, Ill., July 25. -- No decision has been reached as to whether the Illinois district of the United Mine Workers will operate the Lester trip mine, which recently was purchased by the miners for a reported consideration of $725,000 or resell it.
      Frank Farrington. state president of the miners, made this statement following a meeting of the executive board here.
      He denied reports that the board was not in agreement as to the wisdom of the purchase. It is understood the miners took over the strip mine to compensate the owners for the damage done during the Herrin riots.

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