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Progressive Mine Workers of America
Progressive Miners of America

Bombings, Explosions, Riots, Shootings, Mayhem & Murder

      The Progressive Miners of America (PMA) was a coal miners' union organized in 1932.
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January 1933
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, January 4, 1933, Pages 1 & 2
Lead Splatters Through Streets of Kincaid as Wage Dispute Breaks Out Anew
      TAYLORVILLE, Jan. 3. -- (AP) -- Lead splattered through the streets of nearby Kincaid tonight as the Central Illinois coal mine wage war, alternately subsiding and flaring since last August, broke out anew.
      Two deaths -- one a woman -- were added to the mounting casualty list. Authorities said apparently the woman was struck by a stray bullet. The dead were: Vincent Kodems, Springfield, a working miner, and Mrs. Emma Comulato, 51, Taylorville.
      Working miners emerged from the No. 7 mine of the Peabody Coal company at Kincaid to find picket lines confronting them. Someone fired a shot. Others followed. When the melee was over, Rodems and Mrs. Comulato were fatally struck. A dozen others, including a mine guard, were injured. All were reported to be working miners.
      The Kincaid killings climaxed weeks of violence in the area. Last week a Wabash passenger train was wrecked at Jacksonville and two lives were lost. The state's attorney there said it was caused by vandals who filed open a switch lock. Previously a railroad bridge was dynamited in Christian county, halting coal shipments from the mines for several days, and about the same time a cache of dynamite was found under a railroad bridge near Litchfield. The sheriff's office at Decatur said railroad bridges had been patrolled for weeks as a result of the mine trouble.
Claim Progressive Was Cause
      W. C. Argust, in charge of Peabody operations in the county, said picketing started at Kincaid today after an official of the newly organized Progressive Miners union appeared here yesterday urging strikers again to resort to picketing. The Peabody concern operates under wage contracts from the older United Mine Workers union.
      "As the men came out of the mine gates to the main street," Arguat said, "they were met by a group of pickets. The pickets were armed with clubs, and pick axes, and some had pistols, shotguns and rifles."
      "Apparently the first shots came from snipers hidden in houses across the street. One shot sounded, and then another. It was not determined immediately if the actual picket lines joined in the firing, but we believe they did."
      Argust said that the workers were unarmed and offered no resistance. "They were helpless," he said.
Mrs. Comulato Visiting Brother
      Mrs . Camulato was visiting at the home of a brother in Kincaid. Her relatives said she ran outside onto the porch of the house at the sound of the firing. She fell, struck through the heart by a bullet.
      Eleven of the wounded were taken to Taylorville hospitals for treatment. Another was reported taken lo Springfield.
      Christian county has been the vortex of the wage dispute. The first concerted action of the Progressive miners, opposing the wage scale negotiated by the United Mine Workers last summer, resulted in a "march on Taylorville" in September and the Peabody mines in the county were closed temporarily.
Guard Was Withdrawn
      Later the mines re-opened under watchful eyes of the Illinois national guard. Less than two weeks ago, the guard was withdrawn as officials said everything was quiet. Within 24 hours, two bombings occurred to make 12 bombings in and near Taylorville.
      Peabody officials, while fearing possible outbreaks as the men attempted to return to work tomorrow, expressed confidence that Christian county officials would be able to cope with the situation and said they would not ask that the national guard be recalled.
      CHICAGO, Jan. 3. -- (AP) -- Stuyvesant Peabody, president of the Peabody Coal company, tonight expressed surprise at the mine picket shooting at Kincaid and said he had assumed that labor troubles in the coal fields had quieted down for good. Informed of the shooting by the Associated Press, Peabody said no plans had been made to ask for troop protection for working miners in Christian county. Employment in Peabody mines has gained steadily during recent weeks and is now at its peak, he said.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, January 4, 1933, Page 1
Two More Shot and Home Bombed -- Seven Dead
      Company B infantry, Champaign, left at 1 o'clock this afternoon to report to Col . Robt. F. Davis, commanding the 130th infantry, at Taylorvllle in the mine area. The troops will be stationed at Taylorvllle, but will be working in and around Kincaid.
      Capt. E. A. Fabert, First Lt. T. F. English and Second Lt. C. W. Pearce were in charge of the 63 troops when they left here by bus and motor transport.
      The local infantry returned from the Taylorvllle mine district about one month ago after a week spent in policing the locality.
      Springfield, III., Jan. 4. -- (UP) -- Five troops of the Illinois national guard were ordered to Kincaid today by Adjutant General Carlos E. Black. The units are from Danville, Champaign, Springfield, Salem and Sullivan.
      Col. Robert W. Davis of Carbondale will be in command of the five troops which will number a total of approximately 300 men.
      Calling out of the troops today marked the second time the national guard has been called into the Christian county coal fields since hostilities broke out between rival mine union factions.
      Taylorvllle, III., Jan. 4. -- (UP) -- Warfare between factional mine unions which yesterday took a toll of two lives to swell the death list of mine war casualties to seven and caused injury to 12 others burst forth anew here today with the shooting of two miners and the bombing of the home of a third.
      The two miners shot today were Thomas Hickman and Fulton Smith, who were fired on as they were driving to work at a Peabody Coal company mine at Kincaid where yesterday's fatal shooting occurred. They were shot at by snipers who had hid in an abandoned house . Both were taken to a local hospital.
      The bombing occurred at the home of August Croso, also employed at the Kincaid mine. The force of the blast was so terrific that It practically demolished the structure. No one was in the building at the time of the blast.
Mother of Three Killed
      One of those killed was Mrs. Emma Commulatto, 31, mother of three children. She was struck in the heart by a stray bullet as she stepped to her front porch at the first sound of shooting. The man killed was Vincent Rodems, 20, Springfield, a national guard who was employed here as a mine guard. All of the Injured are expected to live.
      Several hours after the shooting about 75 deputy sheriffs surrounded a number of homes here and arrested 30 men and women. They were taken to the Christian county jail at Taylorvllle for questioning. Claim that machine guns were used was made by deputies who say they were fired from houses along a state highway leading from a Peabody Coal company mine here.
      The shooting occurred as the deputies, on duty in this strife torn mining area , known as "The Little Balkans" because of the varied nationalities of its residents, were escorting working miners from the diggings to their homes.
      Previously the deputies, who took over patrol duty after state troops, on duty for several months, left here recently, had attempted to disperse a crowd of about 150 struck pickets said to be members of the Progressive Miners of America, an organization combating operation of mines working under wage scale agreements with me United Mine Workers of America.
Policeman Threaten Deputy
      As the deputies advanced on the pickets among whom were several special policemen, deputized by the towns of Kincaid, Tovey and Bulpit., a cry to "stand your ground" went up and the pickets refused to move.
      As one of the deputies advanced a special policeman is said to have pushed a revolver against the chest of a deputy sheriff, with the warning:
      "Advance another step and I'll drill you."
      The deputies then left the scene and went to the mine where the working diggers had been held back to allow for the dispersal of the strikers.
      Finally the workers, of whom there were about 50, left under escort of the deputy sheriffs.
      As they neared the picket line they were greeted by boos and catcalls.
      Suddenly a shot was fired. Deputies said it came from the picket line.
      Then, they said, a string of shots was poured from the houses alongside the road. Only one shot, they said, was fired from the picket lines.
      The pickets fled but not before a number of them as well as a number of working diggers had been mowed down.
      One man, Dominic Margella, 50, was taken to a Springfield hospital. His leg had been shot off.
      Others were said to have a load of bullet wounds on their legs to support the claim that machine guns were used.
      Ambulances were hurried here from Taylorvllle but searchers had difficulty finding some of the wounded, several having taken refuge in nearby fields.
      While no request has been made for state troops, the adjutant general's office had taken official cognizance of the situation today by sending Major Omer Davenport, Decatur, Illinois national guard, here to observe and report back to Adj. Gen. Carlos E. Black at Springfield.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, January 5, 1933, Page 1
Christian County Tensely Quiet As National Guards Again Still Bitterness of Union Mine Strife
      TAYLORVILLE, Jan. 4. -- (AP) -- Christian county was tensely quiet tonight, the bitterness of inter-union mine strife subdued by the guns of national guardsmen. Military rule had returned to this scene of fighting by rival unions after an 11-day experiment with civil peace had failed.
      The first of five Illinois national guard companies, recalled when the civil forces found they could not cope with the sniping of the miners, took up sentry duty shortly before dusk, leaving the sheriffs deputies free to round up the gunners who slew two persons and wounded a score more last night and today.
War for Homes
      Nerves were on edge in Kincaid, the little mining community seven miles west of Taylorville where a pitched battle Tuesday night signaled the renewal of violent strife between the United Mine Workers union and the Progressive Miners of America.
      To many of its residents, it is war for their homes, for Kincaid is a center loyal chiefly to the Progressive Miners cause and the Peabody mine No. 7, scene of battle Tuesday night, operates under contract with the United Mine Workers of whom many are brought in from other parts of the state. They accepted the $5 basic wage contract signed by United Mine Workers and Illinois coal operators last year. The Progressive Miners, many former employees at Peabody No. 7, are picketing to wrest control for their union.
      Snipers picked off two workers as they approached the pit this morning, wounding them seriously. Others dodged to cover for protection from concealed machine gun nests.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, January 7, 1933, Page 1
      TAYLORVILLE, Jan. 6. -- (AP ) -- Mrs. Emma Cummolato was buried today as a martyr to the cause of the Progressive Miners union.
      While hundreds of striking miners and their families followed the funeral cortege of the woman, slain Tuesday night in another outbreak of guerilla warfare between rival coal diggers unions, Christian county officers made plans for the prosecution on murder charges of 21 men and five women.
      National guardsmen maintained order and another day passed without incident, although uncertainty and disquiet were prevalent on the streets of Taylorville and neighboring mine towns.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, January 7, 1933, Page 1
      Taylorvllle, Ill., Jan. 7. -- (United Press.) -- Withdrawal of one or two of the National Guard troops sent here Wednesday following rioting In the Midland coal area, which resulted in the killing of two men and a woman and wounding of 13 others, was expected to be announced early next week as quiet continued to prevail in the mining area today.
      A total of five troops have been on guard duty in the county since late Wednesday and since their arrival no further outbreak of violence has occurred and county authorities have announced they do not anticipate any more while the troops are here.
      Twenty-one men remained in the Christian county jail today, charged with murder, as a result of the rioting of members of the two mine union factions at Kincaid Tuesday.
      They will be given a preliminary hearing next Friday by Judge William B. Wright of the Christian county circuit court. Wright announced the date for the hearing after a conference of attorneys and county authorities.
      Five women who were arrested following the rioting were released on bond of $1,000 each after they had waived preliminary hearing yesterday to await action of the March grand jury. M . and Mrs. August Corso also were released yesterday when they convinced authorities they did not participate in the rioting. While the Corso's were held in the county jail Tuesday night their home, which is located near the Kincaid mine, was destroyed by a bomb.
      Funeral services for Mrs. Enrma Cummerlato a miner's wife who was killed by a stray bullet during the rioting, were held yesterday . Members of the Progressive Miners ot America and ladies auxiliary units attended the services.
      Mrs. Agnes Burns Weiks, state president of the auxiliary was the only speaker at the service and she declared that Mrs. Cumerlato's death would not have occurred had Governor-Elect Henry Horner been In office.
      "We hope that the miners will get a new deal from Mr. Horner," Mrs. Weiks said.
      Last rites for Vincent Rodems, Springfield miner, who also was killed during the rioting were held at Springfield today.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, January 10, 1933, Page 3
Bomb Wrecks Kincaid Grocery
Kincaid Grocery showing bomb damage in 1933
      In a new outbreak of disorder growing out of mine troubles in Christian county, two bombs were exploded, causing damage estimated at $10,000. This picture shows damage caused by a bomb which exploded in the grocery store of Albert Matozzi, Kincaid chief of police, who was among those charged with murder after two persons were slain in a quarrel between United Mine Workers and unidentified persons believed sympathizers of the Progressive Miners union.
(Associated Press Photo).
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, January 13, 1933, Page 4
TAVLORVILLE, Jan. 12. -- AP -- A grand jury investigated recent miners' riots in Christian county today, while members of the Progressive union prepared to hold their election tomorrow under court supervision. Numerous witnesses were called before the grand jury, which is not expected to complete its deliberations for several days. There was no information for State's Attorney John Coale as to whether indictments had been returned. The Progressive election, originally set for Tuesday, will be held at a local garage. Circuit Judge William Wright ordered that the garage must be closed as soon as balloting is completed, with only the tellers permitted to remain.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, January 13, 1933, Page 1
      Taylorville, Ill. Jan. 13. -- (United Press.) -- Disarmament of warring mine union factions in compliance with a truce agreed on between leaders of rival unions at a conference with Gov. Henry Horner at Springfield, last night, was begun here today.
      Sheriff Charles Wieneke notified scores of special deputy sheriffs to surrender their commission star and to disarm.
      Failure to comply, he said, would, result in their arrest on charges of carrying concealed weapons.
No Trouble Anticipated
      Disarming of special policemen appointed by officials of the mining villages and of mine strike pickets is in the hands of Lieut. Col. Robert W. Davis, Carbondale, commander of four state militia units on duty here. No trouble is anticipated In the disarming of the special policemen and pickets, it was said.
      Quiet reigned in the Christian county mining area today as state soldiers continued patrol duty here and in nearby villages where factional mine union warfare resulted In two men and women being slain last week.
      In accordance with terms of a truce agreed on at a conference between leaders of two union factions and Gov. Horner at Springfield there was no attempt to picket Peabody Coal company mines here today. The mines are those operated under a wage agreement with the United Mine Workers of America and opposed by the Progressive Miners of America. Grand Jury Investigates
      Grand jury inquiry into last week's killings begun yesterday ', was resumed today. Soldiers, county authorities and miners were questioned. The jury is expected to report today. More than 30 men and women have been charged with murder in - connection with the killings.
      Welfare kitchens maintained by Progressives in coal hamlets also were operating today county authorities having acceded to Horner's request not to close them.
      Members of the Progressive union in this area also cast their vote in a state-wide election of officers of the union after having been barred from balloting Tuesday. The balloting today was authorized under a court injunction restraining county authorities from interfering.
Workers Are Unmolested
      Springfield, 1Ill., Jan. 13. -- (United Press.) -- Workers at four Peabody Coal company mines operating in the Springfield mining area went to work today without a strike picket attempting to stop them. The cessation of picketing here is in accordance with a truce agreed on by leaders of rival mine union factions at a conference here last night with Gov. Henry Horner.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, January 18, 1933, Page 1
      Springfield, III ., Jan . 18 -- (UP) -- Seeking a settlement to end a war of bloodshed between coal mine union factions in Illinois, leaders of both sides of the controversy today entered the third day of a series of conferences hopeful of reaching an agreement.
      "We will try to stay in conference, no matter how long it takes, until we have reached some kind of an agreement which will bring an end to the present strife and restore peace among all the miners in the state," one of the leaders told the United Press shortly after the conference was resumed. Whether the conference has made progress was a closely guarded secret today.
      Inquiries as to whether progress had been made were met with silence except for one conferee who said that any information as to progress would have to come from Gov. Henry Horner, or who summoned the leaders here to help him settle the dispute.
      Those participating in the conference are the high officers of the Progressive Miners of America and the Illinois District Union of the United Mine Workers of America. So far as is known the conference, which has been attended only by three from each side, has been peacefully conducted.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, January 20, 1933, Page 1
Meet Gov. Horner to Discuss End of Mine Warfare
      Springfield, Ill., Jan. 20. -- (UP) -- Rival mine union officials will confer with Governor Henry Horner again at 4 o'clock this afternoon to discuss plans to bring permanent peace to the coal fields of Illinois.
      Leaders of the Illinois district union and the Progressive Miners of America were in conference with Horner for several hours yesterday but adjourned without taking any action. Those attending the session declined to comment on what was considered at the conference.
      John H . Walker, president; Fox Hughes, vice president; and Walter Nesbit, secretary treasurer; will represent the district union at today's conference, while Claude Pearcy, president; William Keck, secretary treasurer; and George Dowell, attorney, will represent the progressives.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, January 26, 1933, Pages 1
Progressives Seek Injunction
      Benton, III., Jan. 26. -- (UP) --Three hundred Progressive mine union sympathizers today filed application for an injunction against Franklin county authorities seeking to restrain them from interfering with mass meetings.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, January 26, 1933, Pages 1 & 2
Guards Ready After Near Riot In State Capitol
      SPRINGFIELD, Jan. 25. -- (AP) -- Some 300 persons claiming to represent Illinois unemployed who staged a near riot today in the waiting room of the governor's office were escorted out of the city by police tonight and given orders not to return unless they came in orderly delegations.
      Gov. Henry Homer communicated with the attorney general's office shortly after the delegation had screamed and howled for a hearing at his offices. They finally surged out of the office before the swinging clubs of city and state police, tearing off a door jamb as they left.
      Shortly after the governor talked with the attorney general, the machine gun company of the 133rd infantry of Springfield was ordered to remain in readiness all night at the state fair grounds and Troop F of the national guard cavalry to hold itself ready at the state arsenal.
      Maj .Gen. Carlos Black of the guardsmen said there had been no mobilization order, but the two companies had been ordered informally to await developments.
      The delegation, representing the Illinois unemployed council, first had attempted to participate in a discussion of the sales tax before the state House of Representatives. Fifty of them were admitted to the House galleries on a promise that they would maintain order.
      A joint Senate and House discussion of the sales tax had been scheduled for 10 a. m. and the unemployed representatives became impatient after it had been delayed more than an hour. Shouts of "we demand to speak against the sales tax" arose from the gallery and Speaker Arthur Roe ordered the delegation ousted. They went with no disorder, but shouted threats to come back later with 250 comrades.
      After the main delegation had left, a woman shouted a demand to be heard. "Throw her out too," Speaker Roe ordered. She was removed.
      It was after the 50 demonstrators had joined their 250 companions and started back to the legislative halls that the near riot at the governor's office occurred. About 200 of them jammed into the reception room of the office and shouted demands to see the governor. Guards blocked the doorway to Gov. Horner's private office.
      However, Gov. Horner appeared in the doorway and offered to speak with five members of the delegation if they would be selected. As the governor stepped back into his office, pandemonium broke loose.
      Ten state highway patrolmen and six city police had arrived by that time and at the outburst of shouts they began swinging their clubs. The crowd rushed the outer door in a body and the jamb was torn off.
      Five thousand mothers, wives, sisters, and sweethearts of Illinois coal miners plan to parade through the streets of the capital tomorrow on behalf of the Progressive Miners union. Fifty of them -- mourners for miners who died in the Moweaqua mine disaster Christmas eve will be clad in black. The others will wear white.
      No disorder was anticipated in connection with the women's march. Gov. Horner has arranged to meet Miss Agnes Burns Weick, state president of the women's auxiliary of the Progressive miners and two other women in his office to discuss the situation.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, January 26, 1933, Page 1
      Springfield, III., Jan. 26. -- Five thousand white uniformed women and a delegation of 50 others garbed in black mourning, all wives of Illinois union coal miners, paraded thru the streets of Springfield this afternoon in a giant demonstration for improved living conditions for their husbands. The 50 women in mourning are relatives of 54 miners who were trapped to death in a mine explosion at Moweaqua on Christmas Eve.
      The women, all members of the women's auxiliary of the Progressive Miners of America, began coming here early today by train, private car and motor trucks from all sections of the state. More than 50 cities were represented in the march, expected to be one of the most colorful in the history of this city.
Moves To State House
      The parade started from the state arsenal at 1 o'clock and the marchers proceeded thru the business district and to the east entrance to the statehouse Where they disbanded and a group of auxiliary unit presidents and state officers called upon Governor Henry Horner.
      The group called upon Horner was composed of Mrs. Agnes Wieck, president, Belleville; Mrs. Leon Benson, Tovey, vice-president; and Mrs. Joseph Burrell, Gillespie, secretary.
      The organization's legislative program requests unemployment insurance at the expense of industry; increased state aid for the unemployed, assurance of the right of free speech and assemblage in all sections of the state, a right which they say is denied them in Christian and Franklin county coal fields, where Progressives are combating efforts to operate mines working under agreements with the United Mine Workers of America.
      Horner has agreed to meet the presidents of the auxiliary local units in his executive offices and after extending his greetings to them he received the state officers or the auxiliary who then presented their program.
      Some of the women came from as far south as Franklin county and as far north as Galesburg and Peoria.
      A number of bands, municipal, high school and some that apparently were gotten together over night were ready to take part In the parade. The bands were from Gillespie, Riverton, Tovey and Springfield.
      Every means of transportation was brought into use to bring the paraders, bands and friends to Springfield. Special trains arrived in Spring-field from Macoupin, Montgomery and Madison and St. Clair counties. Some of the marchers arrived In open trucks, others were clinging to the sides of automobiles while still others came buses.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, January 29, 1933, Page 4
"Reign of Terror" to Be Stopped by Governor
      Governor Horner is making the first progress toward ending the "reign of terror" that has been holding several Illinois coal fields for the past few months. He is conferring now with leaders of both the United Mine Workers of America and the Progressive Miners of America in an effort to iron out the difficulties surrounding the present hostilities in the Taylorville area.
      Investigation is promised of the whole situation as rumors are going about that Governor Horner will appoint a commission to obtain real information on the affair and furnish a basis for future legislation and regulation of the coal fields. Since several years ago the Illinois fields have been in a more or less constant state of uproar in an effort to allow one faction to gain ascendancy over the other In controlling the fields.
      The union activities have extended themselves beyond the range of aiding the miners and have thrown many miners out of work on account of strife within and between the unions. The unions have a definite service to render to organized labor, but it does not include hostilities and fighting that endangers the lives of bystanders and those living within the area of the fighting. These things can be settled peaceably. Picketing nearly always leads to strife that later develops into some thing serious, and the time has come when we must clean up this action arid prevent further loss of life and property due to needless "mine wars."
      Governor Horner's conference promises to prove that this sort of thing can be settled peaceably. If the factions would have resorted to such conferences earlier a great deal of needless loss would have been prevented. Some persons think that the unions have outlived their time. They think that labor men now have what they were looking for in the way of reforms and that the unions are merely in the way. We do not think this is true. Undoubtedly, in the present capitalistic system, labor must have organization and be able to furnish itself with spokesmen to carry forth the demands of the organization, which should be composed of all the workers if it is to be effective.
      In the investigation the question pf precedence between two unions in the Taylorville region and the question of the right of the miners to determine among themselves and individually to which union they should belong is to be determined. It is apparent that the miners should undoubtedly have the right to select the union they wish to affiliate, but it is also apparent that there should not be strife between the existing organizations when there is more than one on the same field. It has been alleged that the men in the coal fields have been deprived of their civil liberties during the recent fiasco. The curtailment of these rights as citizens is also to be investigated. We wish the Governor luck in his conferences, and trust that they surely will bring about some manner of compromise, which will undoubtedly be better than the existing conditions of strife over every little matter upon which the two unions disagree. The bombing of homes and offices is inhuman and should not be tolerated. Those who resent the presence of the National Guard in the coal field must realize that some sort of discipline must be maintained in order to protect the citizens of the area and those passing through.

February 1933
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, February 2, 1933, Page 4
Benton Miners Get Six Months Term From Circuit judge
BENTON. Feb. 1. -- AP -- John Moulin of Zeigler, member of the state scale committee of the United Mine Workers of America, Clyde Lipe and Gola Whitlow of Benton were sentenced to six months in jail today by Circuit Judge Charles H . Miller.
      The three were charged with assaulting Leal W. Reese of Taylorville, attorney for the Progressive Miners union, as he left the courtroom yesterday where he attended a hearing on a petition for an injunction sought by miners aligned with the Progressive union, asking that the U. M. W. A. be restrained from interfering with operation of the union hospital at West Frankfort.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, February 5, 1933, Page 2
Horner Outlines Strict Policy for Law Enforcement as Officials Cannot Reach Truce
      SPRINGFIELD, Feb. 4. -- (AP) -- Failure of attempts to arbitrate the bitter controversy between Illinois rival coal mine unions was announced tonight by Gov. Henry Horner, who outlined a strict policy, for law enforcement in Christian county and other troubled areas.
      A four and a half hour conference this evening, the governor's final effort to compromise the quarrel between the two unions, ended with an announcement that the truce against picketing will end Monday.
      National guardsmen will remain in Christian county to maintain order and prevent further rioting and bloodshed.
      In an order that civil liberties will be guaranteed and that agitation and the carrying of arms discouraged. Mr . Hoover took action along lines asked by leaders of the Progressive Miners of America, new union formed last summer by dissenters from the Illinois district of the ignited Mine Workers of America.
      At least five persons have been killed in central and southern Illinois coal fields as a result of strikes and picketing since last August.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, February 7, 1933, Page 4
"Peaceful" Picketing
      It is extremely doubtful whether allowing peaceful picketing in the mine disputes in Illinois fields will be of benefit to the cause of peace in this region. Gov. Horner upholds peaceful picketing in the dispute following a failure of any settlement in spite of the four weeks of unceasing effort given the matter in conference.
      It is quite a knotty problem that cannot arrive at some solution within four weeks after a conference has begun. Any solution, no matter how temporary, would be better than arriving at approximately the same place we were before the conference. The mine unions continue their strife both internal and between factions, and picketing will be resumed again on the Peabody mines.
      The United Mine Workers of America and the newly organized Progressive Miners of America seem unable to come to any understanding on the matter of whether or not the miners have the right to join whatever union they choose. It is apparent that the warring factions do not intend to give in -- one from a point of view of an organization first in the field and the other from the point of view of the rights of the miners as citizens of a free country to join whatever union they choose.
      It seems deplorable that some compromise cannot be made whereby joint action can be obtained between the unions. It is universally recognized that some sort of organization must be functioning in order to give a basis of arbitration between the miners and the operators, but it is difficult to ascertain what conception of a co-operative organization the miners must have to be against abiding by the decisions of the majority in union actions. The split and the consequent formation of the new progressive mine organization was caused by a lack of compromise within the old organization that prompted workers to resign in preference to continuing under the decisions agreed to by the majority of the members.
      A union is essentially the same as any other organization which is founded to further the interest of a special group. In order to make the union effective in any way it is absolutely necessary to have complete co-operation even by the members of the minority factions in order to have any semblance of group action. Gov. Horner has found it necessary to retain the state troops in the Christian county area as the center of the coal fields controversy, and we hope that he sees fit to follow this up with a policy of absolute control until the miners see fit to come to their senses and again assume a control of their own interests that does not endanger the lives of outsiders. The governor has no other choice than to make his demands effective by means of the troops. It is too bad that he has to do this, but something must be done. Compromise must be effected or at least peaceful agreements for work must be arrived at in order to preserve the interests of society at large interested in this conflict that has long since ceased to be a private war.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, February 8, 1933, Page 1
Progressive Miners Formulate Plans for Renewed Picketing Activity
      SPRINGFIELD, Feb. 7. -- (AP) -- Peace held sway over the Illinois mine fields tonight as Progressive miners formulated plans for renewed picketing activity at mines operated under wage contracts from the United Mine Workers union.
      It was revealed tonight that agreement had been reached in Christian county between Col. Robert D. Davis of the Illinois national guard and representatives of the Progressives to allow 12 Progressives to act as pickets at each of the operating mines in that county.
      Progressives indicated picketing might start tomorrow. The pickets, Col. Davis said, must be unarmed but they will be permitted to carry banners.
      Previously, picketing in the Taylorville area resulted in clashes between strikers and workers. Three persons were killed in the county during disorders.
      The State Legislature had a demand for investigation of the conditions in the coal fields presented today by Representative Ronald V. Libonati ( Rep., Chicago ).
The Progressive Miner - mid-February 1933
GILLESPIE, IL. -- At the Colonial Theater, a Wage Scale convention was held by the Progressive Miners of America. Over 200 miner-delegates from throughout the state attended.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, February 22, 1933, Page 3
      Benld, Feb . 21. -- (AP) -- Sheriff Frank Fries of Macoupin county today offered a reward of $100 for the apprehension of the men who bombed the rectory of the Rev. John Goff, Roman Catholic priest here, February 15, and slightly injured the priest.
      Investigation showed, the sheriff said, that the fuse used in the bombing had been taken from a road construction camp and not from a coal mine as at first supposed. The priest had discussed mine troubles from the pulpit and a theory was that the bombing was by men who opposed his views.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, February 25, 1933, Page 1
Casualty List of Riot Totals One Shot, Nearly Score Injured, 10 in Jail
      Sixty-five men of Troop E, 106th cavalry, were scheduled to leave early this morning from Champaign for Taylorville, where they will relieve national guardsmen, who, in turn, will advance to Springfield to quell current mine disorders there.
      Capt. R. G. Gher, commander of the local cavalry, said at 2 o'clock this morning that he bad received a verbal order from Springfield to move his troop immediately. The local outfit, Capt. Gher believes, will remain at the scene of the mine disorders for not less than two weeks. The troop is taking six light machine guns along.
      SPRINGFIELD, Feb. 24. -- (AP) -- Another flare-up in the mine war took place at the Capitol coal mine, within the Springfield city limits, tonight and when it was over the casualty list totalled one shot, nearly a score injured, and 10 were in jail.
      A throng of miners, belonging to the Progressive Miners Union, and estimated by deputy sheriffs to exceed 1,000, milled around the entry to the Capitol mine, a Peabody colliery, at closing time.
      As members of the United Mine Workers of America left the coal company s property they were greeted with, hoots and jeers. Then as deputy sheriffs and special officers sought to disperse the pickets a general fight started. The officers turned loose tear gas but it was rapidly dispelled by a strong wind and proved of little avail. Stones and sticks flew through the air; heads were cracked with clubs; and scuffles were many. Meanwhile, the working coal miners were being driven rapidly away in automobiles.
      As fighting grew intensity a number of shots were fired. Deputy sheriffs later said they heard as many as six. But one person was found, however, who had been shot. The sheriffs force, aided by Springfield police, succeeded in breaking up the assemblage.
      Joseph Poder, one of the pickets, was shot in the face and taken to a hospital. Lee Leonard, a deputy sheriff, suffered severe bruises necessitating hospital treatment. Four other pickets were badly beaten and given hospital care. Others, who suffered less severe injuries, were treated and went home.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, February 26, 1933, Page 4
"Peaceful Picketing Not Working Out"
"PEACEFUL picketing in the Taylorville mine region has hardly proved itself of any value whatsoever. In fact, we might even go so far as to suggest that a mine fight where one man was shot and more than 20 were injured while a mob of 1,000 milled about the entrance of the Capitol mine is hardly conducive to bringing evidence that might tend to cause the present system to be continued.
      It seems that Gov. Horner took too much for granted and gave the mine workers credit for too much judgment when he promised them that they could continue "peaceful picketing" after the last conference held on the situation. Peaceful picketing is all right in theory, in actual practice it has done more to precipitate riots and mob action than any other item included in the details of a mine war of any kind in the history of our state.
      Capt . R. G. Gher left yesterday with 65 men of the local Troop E, of the 106th cavalry to go to Taylorville. The front line guardsmen in that area are under orders to advance to Springfield to work on the mine disorders nearer to that center. With such mobilization orders being given it is clear that the mine situation is definitely out of control. The United Mine Workers of America were greeted by jeers of the Progressive Miners union as they came out of the Capitol mine at closing time, which action started the most recent outbreak of warfare.
      However fair the practice of peaceful picketing may be to both the disputing mine organizations it is certainly not fair to the citizens and other who must live and work and travel in the vicinity of the trouble. This system has been conclusively proved to be the cause of several outbreaks as the fighting has started with the pickets. If picketing were not allowed by either faction there would not be that ever-present urge to fight with the pickets. If any sort of retractory order is made, we feel that it should concern the practice of allowing "peaceful picketing" in this region.
      While it is absolutely certain that the striking miners are justified in demanding a living wage for their work, it is definitely settled that there is no right that is given to these fighters to endanger tie lives of innocent persons who do not wish to become involved in the fight. Gov. Horner may not have been so very successful in his efforts to quell the situation to date, but he has certainly been as successful as those who start the violence.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, February 27, 1933, Page 1
U. M. W. A. Adds Seriousness To Mine Row
Springfield, Ill., Feb . 27 -- ( UP ) -- Seriousness of a state factional mine union controversy which has already taken a death toll of nine lives in the last six months, was heightened still further today with announcement by John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers of America, that the International organization will direct activities of the state union beginning Wednesday.
      The announcement stated that the injection of the International union into the controversy was at the "voluntary petition" of the Illinois district union and by "unanimous vote" of the district board.
      "The new arrangement will become effective Wednesday," said Lewis.
      Decision of Lewis to take control of the state organization and set up a provisional state union government came as this mining area resounded to echoes of dynamite bombs which damaged homes here over the weekend and the firing of shotguns and revolvers into home occupied by miners "loyal" to the district union which is opposed by the Progressive Miners of America. The bombings and shootings were in spite of the presence of four units of state soldiers on guard duty here since Saturday due to other bombings, shootings and riots last week between Progressive pickets and working miners.
      The soldiers patrolled areas in the vicinity of four Peabody coal company mines, closed on order of Gov. Henry Horner to prevent , further bloodshed. They were called out late Friday when a policeman, three deputy sheriffs and five miners were injured in riots near mine pits late Friday.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, February 28, 1933, Page 4
Lewis Free to Use Full Force of Union in Attempt to End Strife in Coal Mines of State
      SPRINGFIELD. Feb. 27. -- (AP) -- Illinois district, United Mine Workers, today surrendered its charter to John L. Lewis, international president, so he could use the full force of his organization in an attempt to end the mine strife that has raged in Illinois for several months.
      His hands free, now that an injunction against him will be dissolved, Lewis will be able to present a firmer front against the Progressive Mine union which broke away from the United miners in a dispute over a wage scale and the alleged stealing of election ballots.
Hopes to Unite Forces
      Whether members favoring John H. Walker, president of the Illinois miners and once bitter opponent of Lewis, will join with Lewis to end inter-union squabbling in the United miners ranks, remains to be seen. Lewis hopes to unite the forces in his struggle with the rival union which now claims a greater membership than the United miners.
      The International president explained today that dissolution of the injunction will be merely a legal formality since the Illinois union has given up its charter.
      The Illinois officials who will be supplanted by provisional officers are John H. Walker, president; Fox Hughes, vice president, and Walter Nesbit, secretary-treasurer.
Will Reorganize Union
      The International body will reorganize the union and assume obligation of the existing wage agreement between the operators and United miners which does not expire until March 31, 1935.
      Claude Pearcy, president of the Progressive miners, declared today that surrender of the Illinois United Mine Workers charter was merely a gesture, made to intimidate operators, that will have no effect on us, one way or the other.

March 1933
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, March 1, 1933, Page 4
Bombs Are Exploded Near Homes of Two Members of United Mine Workers Union
      SPRINGFIELD, Feb. 28. -- (AP) -- Guard discipline tightened over Sangamon county mines today. While troops patrolled four collieries, bombs were exploded near the homes of two members of the United Mine Workers union.
      Meanwhile, preparations were completed for the opening tomorrow of a wage scale conference at Hillsboro, in Montgomery county, between members of the new progressive union and the independent Illinois coal operators. A new scale is to be negotiated to replace the $5.00 basic was agreement which expires March 31. William Keck, secretary-treasurer of the Progressive Miners of America, said the negotiations probably would be completed in three or four days. Ross W. Miller, Hillsboro, will act as chairman for the operators committee.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, March 1, 1933, Page 2
      Auburn, Ill., Mar. 1 -- (UP) -- One man was shot and three others injured when a group of miners, employed at the Cora diggings of the Peabody coal company at Andrew, near Springfield, were attacked as they were driving to week today.
      The miners attacked are members of the Illinois District of the United Mine Workers of America which has a wage scale agreement with the Peabody company. Authorities said the miners were attacked by about fifty sympathizers of the Progressive Miners of America which is opposing operation of mines having contracts with the district union.
      The miner shot, is William Cox, who was struck in the mouth by a bullet. Others who were injured by clubs or stones or in personal clashes with their assailants were Jack Wallace, cut in the right eye and ear, and William Buchanan and Hawley Stringer, who were bruised and cut. All reside here.
Miner's Home Bombed
      Springfield, Ill., Mar. 1. -- (UP) --A miner's home and two nearby residences were damaged here today by a powder bomb which exploded at the side of the former's residence. No one was injured and the chief damage was done to windows in the three structures. The bombing occurred about three blocks from the home of John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers of America.
      The bomb was set off at the side of a house occupied by John Harrelson, a miner employed by the Peerless mine of the Peabody coal company. Five of Harrelson's children, were sprayed with broken window glass but none was injured. Harrelson is a member of the Illinois District of the United Mine Workers of America.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, March 2, 1933, Pages 1 & 2
Miners' Head Acts for Quiet; Appoints Sneed
SPRINGFIELD, Mar. 1. -- (AP) -- John L . Lewis, international president of the United Miners of America, today assumed full control of the union in the Illinois district and named officials to assist him in operating affairs of the district with the view of bringing peace to the long-troubled coal fields.
      William J . Sneed , Herrin , who was appointed provisional president of the Illinois district yesterday by John L. Lewis, international president of the United Miners of America, is the father of Carl Sneed.
      John H . Walker, who was active in 1929 in preventing Lewis from supervising mine affairs in this state, surrendered the Illinois district charter and voluntarily stepped out of office "to take a long rest."
      Lewis appointed William J. Sneed, Herrin, former state senator and long connected with coal mining affairs, to replace Walker as provisional president. Fox Hughes, Herrin, was retained from the old district roster of officers as vice president, and Thomas Hunter, Springfield , was selected to replace the veteran treasurer, Walter Nesbit, Belleville.
      Strife continued in the state's coal mining areas. Three homes were damaged and the lives of several persons were endangered in Springfield when a bomb exploded. No one was injured, although the beds of two sleeping children were sprayed with glass.
Six Men Hurt
      At Auburn, six men were beaten and bricks were tossed into automobiles in a brush between strikers and workers. John Wallace, employed at the Cora mine, was knocked unconscious. A minor skirmish was reported between strikers and workers at Harrisburg.
      Two men, Frank Brennan and Walter Warner, both of Springfield, suffered minor injuries as national guardsmen quelled a disturbance late this afternoon along a two mile picket line at the Peerless mine near here. Jess Gathard, Riverton, was arrested by militiamen who accused him of refusing to obey orders to clear the highways.
      Guardsmen reported that stones were thrown at three or four automobiles carrying workers from the Capitol mine.
Leaders Confer
      Meanwhile at Hillsboro, leaders of the Progressive Miners' union, the organization opposed to contracts negotiated by the United Miners, sat in conference with several independent coal operators seeking to complete plans for a new wage scale. Claude Pearcy, Gillespie, Progressive president, was elected permanent chairman and W. C. Gill, Peoria, mine operator, was named permanent secretary for the meeting of the operators and the 18 members of the scale committee.
      Lewis, in designating the provisional officers of the Illinois district, said the executive board made up of the officers and the presidents of legally chartered sub-district units will execute policies of the United Mine Workers of America, carry out the instructions of the international executive board, and regulate the internal workings of the district organization.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, March 3, 1933, Page 3
Three Mine Pickets Treated for Wounds Received in Battle
      SPRINGFIELD, Mar. 2. -- (AP) -- Three mine pickets were treated at hospitals for bayonet wounds received tonight in a clash with national guardsmen patrolling Peabody mines here.
      The injured men were Charles LeMaster, Tony Matvlevich, and George Houston. They were wounded in the hips.
      The guardsmen were dispersing the pickets, who were affiliated with the New Progressive Miners union. No arrests were made.
      A bomb exploded early this morning on the home here of Charles Mans, a working miner. Later, two unexploded dynamite bombs were found on the back porches of the adjoining homes of Alfred Unchank and Elbert Pennington.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, March 5, 1933, Page 1
BENTON, Mar. 4 . -- AP -- Sheriff Browning Robinson and deputies of Franklin county tonight arrested 13 men in the relief headquarters of the Progressive Miners union at West Frankfort.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, March 17, 1933, Page 2
Illinois Miners And Producers Finally Agree
      HILLSBORO, Mar. 16. -- (AP) -- Continuation for two years of the $5 daily basic wage contract was agreed upon tonight by the wage scale committees of the Progressive Miners of America and the Illinois Coal Producers association.
      The committees have been meeting here since March 1 to decide upon extension of the contract expiring March 31.
      The agreement will be submitted to a referendum of the Progressive union, organized last year. No date was set. Operators will meet here Tuesday to decide upon ratification of the contract.
      A statement issued after the meeting said:
      "This contract calls for a continuation of the $5 basic wage scale and extends for two years. Concessions in regard to working conditions were made to the miners. It is the feeling of the representatives of both sides that it is the most satisfactory that could be arranged under existing conditions.
      "Both sides feel that by ratification of this agreement, it will go far toward stabilizing the coal industry. The fact that the contract provides for uninterrupted work for a two-year period is of great benefit to both miners and operators as it will make it possible for additional business to be secured for this field and will increase the running time of the miners."
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, March 17, 1933, Page 1
Progressive Miners Agree on $5-a-day Scale
Hillsboro, Ill., March 17. -- A wage scale for members of the Progressive Miners of America , providing a basic rate of $5 a day had been agreed upon today by union officials and independent coal operators following a long series of conferences on the subject. The scale would be operative for two years.
      The scale proposal is similar to one now in effect and which is scheduled to expire March 31, except that it provides additional concessions to the miners relative to working conditions, the agreement, to become effective, must be submitted to a referendum vote of the mine union membership.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, March 25, 1933, Page 1
HARRISBURG, Mar. 24. -- AP -- Three coal miners were wounded during a shooting that occurred at the Dering mine No. 2 at Eldorado in a clash late today between members of the Progressive Miners union and the United Mine Workers .
      David Price, the most seriously wounded of the three, was shot in the back. James Deware was shot in the left arm and Clyde Bates was wounded in the left ankle. All three men live at Eldorado.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, March 27, 1933, Page 1
      West Frankfort, III., March 27. -- (United Press.) -- John Ward, Progressive mine union leader, was killed and two other men were wounded by gunmen who opened fire on them from an Automobile here today.
      One of the wounded men was identified as Clarence Cooper of West Frankfort. The second wounded man was said to be a resident of Harrisburg. His name was not obtained immediately.
      Ward was head of the West Frankfort unemployment relief committee also.
      Springfield, III., March 27. -- (United Press.) -- No request for, state troops has been received from Franklin county authorities in connection with a strike of miners In that area, Gov. Henry Horner announced today.
      Horner said that Franklin county authorities had informed him they would be able to handle the situation. He is in constant touch with the situation, however, thru Lieut. Col. Robert W. Davis, who is to observe and report developments.
      Benton, III., March 27. -- (United Press.) -- The Progressive Miners; union -carried its fight for supremacy in Illinois coal fields into Franklin county, today with a plea, to United Mine Workers to "strike off their chains."
      A mass meeting held at Zeigler and attended by 1,200 Progressive miners and sympathizers, adopted plans for calling strikes at all mines in Franklin county and to attempt enforcement thru picketing.
Meet Challenge With Warning
      United Mine Workers officials met the challenge with a warning to loyal members that any who absented themselves from work for two days to join the movement would be discharged.
      United officers here and at West Frankfort reported that all mines scheduled for operation today were working with reduced crews despite threats to picket the mines.
      When mines reopened today the only picketing reported here was being done by airplanes flying over the mines dropping circulars urging the men to quit work.
Deputized Hundreds
      Sheriff Robinson deputized hundreds of men to meet any outbreak of violence with force. The deputies patrolled railways and mines with orders from the sheriff to prevent all picketing. The strike call had been planned few weeks as a measure to enforce recognition of the new union, organized last summer and now having a membership of approximately 20,000 mostly in central and northern Illinois fields.
      United Mine Workers officials said that many men who failed to report for work today because of fear of violence would return tomorrow in order to protect their jobs, under the discharge clause of contract, which United officials say will be strictly enforced.
      A large number of men working under the United Mine Workers contract are claimed by the Progressives to be secretly aligned with the Progressives.
Approve $5 a Day Scale
Gillespie, III., March 27. -- (United Press.) -- A five dollar daily basic wage rate for miners affiliated with the Progressive Miners of of America in Illinois had been approved today on the basis of nearly complete returns from a state wide referendum Saturday.
      The wage, approved at a wage scale conference here today weeks ago between representatives of Miners and Coal Operators, is identical to that provided in an existing wage agreement between the union and the mine owners. The new proposal Is for two years, beginning next Saturday.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, March 28, 1933, Page 1
One Miner Killed, Two Wounded In Fight
      WEST FRANKFORT, Mar. 27. -- (AP) -- An unsuccessful attempt today by the Progressive miners union which seeks to oust the United Mine Workers of America from Illinois, to call a strike of Franklin county mines, resulted in the death of one miner and the wounding of two others.
      John Ward, 45, of West Frankfort, a Progressive miner, was killed and Elmer Cooper, 29, and Clarence Donaldson, 27, both United Mine workers of Colorado, were seriously wounded in a gun fight in front of the Stone undertaking parlors here this morning.
      Sheriffs deputies said the gun fight resulted when Ward was ejected from a telegraph office here by Ray. Edmundson, president of the sub-district mine, United Mine Workers, and John Moulin, member of the state scale committee of the United Mine Workers of America, following an altercation.
      Ward, officers said, started down the street from the telegraph office when he met Cooper and Donaldson, and thinking they intended to renew the trouble, Ward drew a revolver and began firing at them.
      The two men, officers said, unaware of the telegraph office incident, drew their weapons and returned the fire. Ward fell to the ground fatally wounded. Cooper was shot in the side and Donaldson in the arm. The battle raged around a large tree and shots peppered buildings nearby, one of them going through the undertaking parlor window.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, March 30, 1933, Page 1
Franklin County Deputies Are Active to Haft Trouble; Leaders in Springfield
      ZEIGLER, Mar. 29. -- (AP) -- Deputies from the Franklin county sheriff's office maintained armed peace tonight in this center of the latest trouble between Illinois warring mine factions.
      Meanwhile, at Springfield, a conference of leaders and legislative investigators into the mine controversy assembled at the call of Gov. Henry Horner to hear the request of Ziegler's mayor, C. N. Smith, and president Claude Pearcy of the Progressive Miners union that national guardsmen be sent to Franklin county to maintain order.
      The mines of Franklin county today continued uninterrupted operations with no attempt made by the Progressive union to enforce its strike order. Authorities in the county blamed the current tense situation upon attempts of the Progressives to oust the older United Mine Workers union from the area, its stronghold in the state.
      The command for a general strike was issued following a mass meeting of Progressives who announced they would attempt to picket every mine remaining open Monday. Deputy sheriffs patrolled the mine fields and the threat failed to materialize.
      When Sheriff Robinson s deputies took over local peace enforcement here last night, citizens were told not to gather on the streets and a scheduled meeting of Progressives was not permitted.
      At Springfield, Gov. Horner summoned members of the joint legislative mine investigation commission to attend a session at which Mayor Smith and Pearcy demanded that troops be sent to replace the deputies. Sen. W. E. C. Clifford of Champaign, chairman of the commission, said Sheriff Robinson and State's Attorney Marion M. Hart of Franklin county would attend a session of the commission tonight regarding the mine troubles. The sheriff later said "nothing would please me more than to appear before Gov. Horner and the joint commission in regard to mining trouble in Franklin county."
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, March 30, 1933, Page 1
      Zeigler, Ill., Mar . 30. -- (UP) -- Mayor Murphy Smith and Water Commissioner A. C. Carr were arrested today and taken to jail at Benton in connection with a fire which destroyed the homes of Ray Ednmndson and John Moulin.
      Edmundson is president of the U. M. W. A., sub-district No. 9 and Moulin is a member of the state scales committee. Both have been active in sectional strife for control of Southern fields.
      The fire, which was discovered at 3 a. m., also destroyed a house occupied by a man named Bourman and his son. An immediate investigation was began to determine if the fire was of incendiary origin.
      Walter Kroski, fire chief, was quoted by police as admitting he heard the fire alarm but did not go to the fire. He was lodged in the city jail here for questioning.
      An ominous calm in the Franklin county factional mine war held the southern Illinois coal fields in a tense grip today.
      Sheriff Browning Robinson and 250 special deputies were in complete control, after an initial clash that left two men dead and one critically wounded. Progressive miners' union last night renewed their attack on the United Mine Workers union stronghold from the air. Franklin county was showered with circulars advising the "strike movement is effective."

April 1933
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, April 2, 1933, Page 1
HARRISBURG; Apr. 1. -- AP -- Members of the Progressive miners union staged a parade here today in celebration of the eighth anniversary of passage of the 8-hour day labor law.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, April 2, 1933, Page 2
BENLD, Apr. 1. -- AP -- Protests concerning labor conditions in southern Illinois coal fields were made at a mass meeting here today, attended by an estimated 6,000 members of and sympathizers with the Progressive union.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, April 7, 1933, Page 2
      Du Quoin, Ill. April 7. -- (UP) -- A progressive miner was shot to death and another critically wounded and a deputy sheriff was wounded in a gun battle today with Perry county deputy sheriffs who sought to arrest them for questioning in connection with the critical wounding of a 14-year-old daughter of a deputy sheriff.
      James Atess, 35, progressive mine union leader, was killed and his companion, Henry Arnold, 47, was critically wounded when they opened fire on four deputy sheriffs approaching Atess' home.
      The deputies went to the Atess home to arrest the mine leader. A woman told the officers that Atess was not at home. The officers turned to leave when one of the deputies saw Atess thru a window.
      Atess and Arnold, the officers said, opened fire when the deputies started back toward the house.
No Request for Troops
      Springfield, Ill., April 7. -- (U. P.) -- There has been no request for troops from Perry county where a gun battle took place today between progressive miners of America and deputy sheriffs Adj. Gen. Carlos E. Black of the Illinois National Guard, said today.
      "The sheriff of Perry county reports that he is in control of the situation and that presence of troops is unnecessary," said Black.
      Du Quoin, Ill., April 7. -- (U. P.) -- Fifty progressive mine union leaders were arrested in a series of raids early today by Perry county officers searching for the men who fired into the home of Vernon Miller, a special deputy sheriff, and critically wounded his 14-year-old daughter Laverne.
      The girl was shot thru the right lung as she sat in the front room of her home late last night studying her school lessons. She was not expected to live.
      According to witnesses, gunmen sped down the street in a green sedan and fired several shots at the homes of Raymond Weingart, president of the United Mine Workers local at the Gale Strip mine of the Peabody Coal company and Glenn Canada, a mine guard.
      Canada was one of the guards who fired several shots into the speeding automobiles when they refused to halt at a highway leading to the Electric mine last Wednesday.
      The car then slowed down in front of the Miller home and several more shots were fired. The car then sped away.
      A posse of more than 100 special deputy sheriffs and state highway police was mobilized and began an immediate search with machine guns and shotguns.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, April 16, 1933, Page 3
Continuance Granted To Three Charged With Girl's Murder
      DUQUOIN, Apr. 15. -- (AP) -- A request for a change of venue and a 30 day continuance in the case of three of five men charged with the murder of La Verne Miller, 14-year-old high school girl, was made here today.
      City Judge L. P. Harris, before whom the request was made, granted Carl Treihs, of Pana, attorney in the case, a week s continuance and said he would rule on the venue request a week from Monday.
      Sam Ferro, Emery Albers and Barney Bosseto, Treih's three clients, allegedly killed the school girl by firing a volley of shots at her home here. Authorities alleged the shots were fired as a result of dissention between the Progressive Miners Union and the Mine Workers of America.
      Judge Harris today appointed M. C. Cook, of DuQuoin, attorney for Robert Shingleton, a fourth defendant. L. A. Cranston, also of DuQuoin, was named attorney for Olis Battiaglia, the last of the five men.
      As a result of continued unrest in the Perry county coal mine area authorities tonight ordered that no public gatherings be held. Several dances were called off.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, April 17, 1933, Page 2
Roosevelt Wants to Know About Mine War in Illinois
      Washington, Apr. 17. -- (UP) --President Roosevelt, it was learned today, has asked the department of labor to obtain Information on the Illinois mining situation where disputes between rival union groups have led to bloodshed.
      Numerous telegrams from the Progressive Miners of America, urging President Roosevelt to act to prevent alleged atrocities, have been received at the White House during the last few days. They were referred to Secretary of Labor Perkins with a request that the department look into the mater immediately.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, April 19, 1935, Page 1
Bullets Riddle Car of Benld's Reform Mayor
      BENLD (UP) What was thought to have been a grim warning to Mayor-elect William Wyskocil in the form of stealing his car, riddling it with bullets and then abandoning it on a highway, was investigated today by authorities.
      The automobile was stolen Wednesday and was found yesterday on the White City road near Carllnville with marks from 10 bullets in it.
      Wyskocil won the mayoralty on a reform platform which pledged that he would enforce an earlier closing hour for saloons. He was elected after a bitter campaign. Wyskocil, who is a. coal miner, declined to comment.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, April 19, 1933, Page 2
( By the Associated Press )
      Dozens of cities and villages over Illinois yesterday elected local officials. In most cases candidates did not run under the banner of the two major national parties but were backed by local organizations. Among the winners in races for mayor were:
      Zeigler,. C. M Smith , incumbent (Progressive miners candidate); Christopher, Thomas Towers, incumbent, (Progressive miners candidate); Johnston City, Soy Ligon, incumbent (Non-Progressive miners supported); Rock Island, C. E. Hodson, Republican; Evanston, P. W. Petersen, incumbent, Democrat. Wainright at Jacksonville
      Jacksonville, W. A. Wainright, Republican; Monmouth, Earl McKinnon, Union party; Paxton, R. W. Flora, incumbent, non-partisan; Lincoln, J. M. Allison, Democrat; Taylorville, J. W. Spresser (Non-Progressive miners); Moline Henry Arp, Democrat; East Moline; C. F. Carpentier, incumbent, independent.
      Fairfleld, L. A. Blackbur , incumbent; Dupo, J. Y. Fitzsimmons, incumbent; DuQuoin, A. F. Angel, incumbent (opposed to Progressive miners); Havana, F. M. Taylor, Democrat; Farmington, A. C. Wood, Citizen's party; Eureka; Henry Metts, People's Conservative party; Washington, Chris Ebert, independent; Arcola, M. H. Fortney; Tuscola, C. S. Skinner, incumbent.
Kohler at Greenup
      Greenup, E. M. Kohler; Assumption, W. F. Miller; Villa Grove, Thomas Shanahan; Vandalia, S. T. Rutledge, incumbent; Shelbyville, P. H. Kull; Mt. Pulaski, George Millard; Ramsey, A. M. Fromm; Fairmount City, Anthony Thomas, People's party; East Carondelet, Robert Liver; Cahokia, Arthur Lepere; Edwardsville, W. C. Straube; Bertholdo, John Henkhaus.
      At Rock Island , Republicans elected all city officials and five out of seven aldermen. M. T. Rudgren was re-elected city clerk, and Harold Wessel was elected treasurer. At Fairfield, J. E. Tickner was re-elected city clerk, and Clarence Martin was named treasurer.
      Citizens party candidates in Johnston City were all elected for the first time -- they are J. W. Clayton, John Hart, and Jesse Brooks. Jack Nolen was re-elected city clerk and R. C. Purcell was chosen treasurer.
      A proposition providing for beer sale licenses was approved by a two to one vote in Monmouth. In Jacksonville voters split tickets without compunction, electing J. K. Philips, Democrat, clerk, and Carl Hamilton, Republican, treasurer. Three Democratic aldermen and one Republican were elected, giving the Democrats a majority of two in the eight-man city council.
      Zelgler elected an entire Citizens ticket -- Noah Gifford, treasurer; Dewey McKissick, clerk, Mack Ashman, police magistrate, and G. W. Payne, Miles McGrail, and John Guern, aldermen.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, April 21, 1933, Page 4
Officers Arrange Conference to Determine Attitude on Injunction Against Interference
      BENTON, Apr. 20., -- (AP) -- The sheriffs of Franklin , Williamson, Saline, and Perry counties took steps tonight to prevent bloodshed which they said was threatened tomorrow if members of the Progressive Miners of America attempt to picket the mines manned by United Mine Workers of America.
      Observers said one possible center of trouble was the Union Electric Strip mine near Du Quoin, in Perry county, where deputy sheriffs recently dispersed picketers with tear gas bombs.
      Sheriffs of the four counties arranged a conference tonight in the office here of States Attorney Marion Hart of Franklin county to determine their attitude toward a temporary injunction issued at Pinckneyville yesterday by Circuit Judge Jesse R. Brown, restraining them and the sheriff of Christian county, in Central Illinois, from interfering with picketing or other activities of the Progressives.
      Prior to the conference, Sheriff Browning Robinson of Franklin county announced he would disregard the injunction.
      "I intend to go on and do my duty," Browning said. "They might take me up for contempt, but I am not going to weaken now."
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, April 23, 1933, Page 1
TAYLORVILLE, Apr. 22. -- AP -- The twenty-ninth bomb thrown in the Taylorville district since the beginning of strife between coal mine unions last September tonight blew out several windows in the residence of William Daykin, member of the Progressive Miners union.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, April 27, 1933, Page 1
      Taylorvllle, Ill., April 27. -- (UP) -- Two powerful bombs, timed to explode about a minute apart, shook this entire community early today and damaged the home and garage of Jack Stanley, president of the local union of the Progressive Miners of America. No one was hurt.
      The bombing, about the 40th since the start of a statewide controversy between union miners factions, occurred about 3:15 o'clock this morning.
      The first blew up the back porch of Stanley's home and the second demolished the garage and damaged two automobiles.
      State troops who are on duty here as a result of previous bombings and street gun fights and sheriff's deputies were rushed to the scene and patrolled the vicinity. Others remained at headquarters barracks ready for emergency should the bombings bring reprisals.
      The force of the blast was declared by authorities to be the greatest yet experienced by the community, hardened to bomb explosions.
      Stanley was active in behalf of the progressives who seek to close several mines here operating under agreements with the United Mine Workers of America.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, April 29, 1933, Page 4
Five Hundred Mine Pickets Clash With National Guards; Tear Gas Burns One Man

      SPRINGFIELD, Apr. 28. -- (AP) -- Five hundred mine pickets clashed with a detachment of National guardsmen, police and sheriffs deputies at the entrance to Brookside mine here late today in a renewal of violence in the central Illinois labor strife.
      One man, John Falber, Springfield, identified by police with the progressive miners union and a picket at the tipple, was injured by a blast of tear gas used by the guardsmen in quelling the riot.
      Two men, both pickets, were arrested and lodged in jail.
      Forty guardsmen, a detachment from Company K, stationed at Taylorville, 30 miles away, fixed bayonets and laid down a barrage of tear gas before order was restored at the mine.
      The disturbance started when a large group of pickets gathered at the mine entrance as 300 employees, all members of the United Mine Workers of America, emerged after their day's work.
      The Brookshire colliery, located in the southeast section of Springfield, is operated by the Peabody Coal company.
      More than 100 city police and sheriffs deputies were sent to the scene and later a call was sent in for the troops stationed at Taylorville to prevent disorder in the Christian county area. Falber, police said, was injured when he attempted to west a gas gun from one of the guardsmen. He was burned about the face by gas. At a hospital it was said his injuries were not serious.
      The two men who were arrested were Jules Marcy and Joe Perko, both of Springfield, and identified by police as members of the Progressive Miners' union.

May 1933
The Progressive Miner - May 1933
GILLESPIE, IL. -- The Progressive Miners of America along with their Ladies Auxiliary held a rally at Gillespie Park for speakers trying to gain support for better labor conditions.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, May 4, 1933, Page 1
Miners Protest Raid
      Zeigler, III., May 4. -- (UP) -- Progressive Miners union officials today prepared a new protest to the courts as a result of a raid on their headquaters here late yesterday by four deputy sheriffs.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, May 6, 1933, Page 4
MARION, May 5. -- AP -- Mrs . Millie Yotke, Johnston City, arrested there when officers last night broke up a meeting of the Progressive Miners union auxiliary, was released late today.
      Sheriff C. J. Frick, who booked the woman "for investigation" said she promised not to participate in any more meetings.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, May 11, 1933, Page 3
Miners Will Return To DeSoto Jobs By New U. M.W. Terms
      DESOTO, May 10. -- (AP) -- Officials of the Truax-Traer strip coal mine here announced tonight that all but 30 of approximately 100 former employees, refused employment as members of the Progressive Miner's union, would go to work tomorrow under terms of a United Mine workers contract.
      DeSoto business men this afternoon succeeded in influencing about 60 of the old employees to return to work. Twelve previously had been hired by the company. Before the old employees agreed to company terms tonight the management had hired 45 members of the United Mine Workers union.
      Sheriff's deputies, who patrolled the mine area today in fear of possible violence between the two union factions, expressed hope that the return of a majority of the former employees would insure peace.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, May 13, 1933
Commission Invites United, Progressive Groups To Discuss Differences
      ST. LOUIS, May 12. -- AP -- The social justice commission of St . Louis announced today that the United Mine Workers and the Progressive miners union had agreed to confer here Monday on their acute differences in the Illinois coal area.
      The meeting, it was said, resulted from an invitation addressed by the commission to John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers of America, and Claude Pearcy, president of the Progressive miners.
      Each, Rabbi Ferdinand M. Isserman, head of the justice commission, said, had agreed to send three representatives to the conference.
      Recently a delegation from the Progressive miners appeared before the commission and petitioned for aid in the restoration of "constitutional privileges," which it charged, had been abrogated through a reign of terror against their members in sections of the coal mining district. Subsequently a delegation from the commission conferred with Governor Horner.
      The commission, composed of 15 St. Louis ministers of all denominations, also has invited Chicago clergymen and professors to attend Monday's meeting.
      In its invitation of Lewis and Pearcy, the commission pointed out that workers "under one flag and great democracy" can adjudicate difficulties in the same way that nations settle international problems.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, May 14, 1933, Page 3
Social Justice Corpmission Seeks Peace in Labor Faction Dispute
      ST. LOUIS, May 13. -- (AP) -- A frank, unhampered discussion here Monday between leaders of the Progressive Miners union and the United Mine Workers, warring labor factions in the Illinois coal area, was indicated tonight.
      Informed of a statement today by Claude Pearcy, Progressive Miners president, asserting the union had no intention of uniting or compromising with its rival, Rabbi F. M. Isserman, chairman of the Social Justice commission of St. Louis, sponsoring the discussion, said his only interest was to obtain peace.
      Rabbi Isserman declined to comment further. Both unions have agreed to attend the conference.
      The Social Justice commission, in the past, has successfully arbitrated a number of industrial disputes. Its membership is composed of 15 St. Louis ministers of all denominations and 10 college professors.
      Yesterday Rabbi Isserman announced that Mr. Pearcy, the Progressive leader, and John L. Lewis, international president of the United Mine Workers, each had agreed to send three representatives to a meeting to discuss their grievances.
      Mr. Pearcy, in his statement, issued at Gillespie, Ill., said his organization was co-operating in the St. Louis meeting only in hope that the constitutional rights of southern and central Illinois miners might be restored.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, May 16, 1935, Page 9
Utility Strike Parley Goes On
Union Agent and I. P. L. Official to Meet with Horner
      SPRINGFIELD (UP) Seeking to arbitrate a strike of employees of the Illinois Power & Light company which plunged scores of Central and Southern Illinois cities into darkness, Henry Horner today had invited representatives of strikers and the company to confer here with him on the situation.
      The conference has been set for this afternoon subject to acceptance of the invitation by the two representatives of the parties involved. They are Allen Van Wyck, East St. Louis, vice-president of the I. P. L., and Michael Boyle, Chicago, vice-president of the Brotherhood of Electrical Workers.
      Decision to invite the two men to confer with Homer in an effort to solve the strike problem was reached late yesterday following a five-hour conference between the governor and city officials from 10 downstate cities. The officials termed the situation in some localities as desperate.
      Homer assured them that he would do everything "in my legal power" to hasten an end of the strike, but that did not mean municipal and county authorities were to be relieved of the responsibility of preserving law and order. He insisted that they use every effort to prevent sabotage.
      The strike was called mort than six weeks ago and has resulted in widespread vandalism in the areas involved. The latest violence in the strike occurred at Gillespie and Benld last night when two explosions demolished a high tension pole disrupting services in both cities. Several similar blasts have wrecked light systems in other districts,
      Heading the delegation calling on Horner yesterday was Mayor George Remnsnider of Belleville.
      Last night's dynamiting served to aid a boycott of a number of local residents of the power company in sympathy with striking workers. The boycott is supported by the Progressive Miners of America. Its members voted not to use electric light until after the dispute has been settled.
      Mines in Gillespie except the Liberty mine, were not effected by the disrupted service for they use their own power. The Liberty mine closed several days ago in anticipation of a possible failure of power service.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, May 23, 1933, Page 2
      Dowell, Il., May 23. -- (United Press.) -- A contract between the United Mine Workers of America and officials of the Kathleen mine of the Union Colliery Co., was signed just before noon today, by Fox Hughes, vice president of the state union and Edward Leming, superintendent of the mine.
      In announcing the signing, Hughes said that "this clears up the Progressive Miners in Jackson and Perry counties."
      "The United Mine Workers are in control of the southern Illinois coal fields with the exception, of some sections in Saline county where there are about 1,400 Progressives," Hughes said.
      "In signing the Kathleen mine, the United Mine Workers have control of the Jackson, Perry and Franklin county coal fields as well as other sections in southern Illinois."

June 1933
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, June 20, 1933, Page 5
Pearcy, Union President, Announced Move; Insubordination reason Given For Discharge
      GILLESPIE, Jne 19. --(AP) -- Claude Pearcy, president of the Progressive Miners of America, tonight announced that Gerry Allard has been dismissed as editor of the Progressive Miner. the union's official publication.
      Insubordination was given as reason for Allard's discharge, which is effective immediately.
      Pearcy said the executive board of the union, which has been in session here several days, has taken steps to present its side of the Illinois coal diggers' controversy to General Hugh S. Johnson, administrator of the national recovery act.
      The Progressive union seeks federal recognition as the dominant labor organization in the Illinois coal fields in plans to reorganize and stabilize the mining industry.
      More than a dozen persons have been killed in central and southern Illinois during the last years riots, shootings and bombings growing out of the bitter rivalry between the Progressive union and the older United Mine Workers of America.
      Pearcy said that recent charges were made by Allard's brother and made public by opponents of the Progressive union.
      Allard was said by Pearcy to have refused to adhere to the expressed wishes of the executive board, which has control of the Progressive Miner.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, June 21, 1933, Page 3
May Seek Injunction
      GILLESPIE, June 20. -- (AP) -- The American Civil Liberties union tonight served notice that federal intervention in the southern Illinois mine union war would be sought if state authorities persisted in their attitude of banning public meetings.
      Roger N. Baldwin, director of the Civil Liberties organization, made the announcement at a mass meeting here to which both United Mine Workers and Progressive Miners of America were invited. Clashes between the two groups of coal miners have resulted in officers of several counties forbidding public gatherings.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, June 28, 1933, Page 4
Two Places At Harrisburg Are Damaged by Bombs
      Harrisburg, Ill. June 28. -- (UP) -- Two bombings early today shattered the quiet that had settled over Saline county field of the bitterest strife between the progressive and U. M. W. A. unions.
      The first explosion tore out the front of a west side garage belonging to Delbert Balabas, on route 13 in West Harrisburg. The second bomb exploded in front of the home of Carl Jackson, gasoline station attendant.
      All glass windows of the Balabas garage were blown out and a sliding door splintered. Balabas said he had taken no part in the union dispute and could give no reason for the bombing.

July 1933
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, July 8, 1933, Page 3
Progressive Miners To Observe Truce
      HARRISBURG , July 7. -- (AP) -- Progressive Miners' leaders today promised to observe a five or six-day truce before picketing Peabody, coal mine No. 43, as a result of threatened strife between warring union factions did not occur.
      Assistant Attorney General M. E. Cox, and Lt. Col. Robert W. Davis, a national guard officer, conducted an investigation to determine the best method of keeping peace in Saline county. They left today for Springfield to report conditions to Gov. Henry Homer. The Progressives promised them they would not picket the mine, which is being worked by members of the United Mine Workers until they heard what course the state would pursue.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, July 18, 1933, Page 2
Defense Fails In Attempt to Hold Up Trial
      JONESBORO, July 17. -- (AP) -- A defense challenge to the jury panel for trial of five Du Quoin miners for the murder of Laverne Miller, 14 year old daughter of a United Mine worker there, was overruled today by Circuit Judge Hal A. Spann. Had the motion been sustained, a new panel would have been drawn, necessitating a continuance of the trial.
      The defense based its challenge on the ground that the jury list had been compiled by the three county commissioners from the voters in the primary instead of the general election. A list of 100 jurymen is drawn at a time from 10 per cent of the voters of Union county.
      In overruling the motion, Judge Spann said the essential point to be considered is the preservation of fairness to the defendants and the existence of the principle of chance in making jury selections. With 741 names in the jury box from which the 100 assembled today were drawn, he considered both points to be established.
      Court then recessed to permit both sides to check a list of about 100 witnesses scheduled to testify.
      Attorneys expect a jury to be completed tomorrow unless the defense obtains a continuance.
      The defendants are Emery Albers, 27, Sam Ferro, 24, Barney Bosetto, 29, Robert Shingleton, 21, and Otis Battaglia, 18.
      The school girl was killed April 6 by men who fired from an automobile into her home as she studied her lessons, while her father, Verne Miller, a special deputy at a mine picketed by Progressive miners, was in an adjoining room.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, July 25, 1933, Page 7
Five Buildings Bombed; Man Shot
      Taylorvllle, Ill., July 25. -- ( UP ) -- Authorities In Central Illinois mining communities today feared another outbreak of violence in connection with a factional mine union war as a result of the bombing yesterday of five buildings In Taylorvllle and the shooting of one man.
      The bombing occurred during the early morning and while considerable damage was done to buildings in the vicinity of the blasts no one was injured as a result of the explosions.
      Charles Deavers, a member of the Progressive union, was slightly wounded in the right leg when he exchanged shots with occupants of a car who were believed responsible for the bombings.

August 1933
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, August 5, 1933, Page 2
Jonesboro, III ., Aug. 5. -- (United Press.) -- The defense continued today, in its efforts to break down the state s contention that no coercion was used in obtaining statements from four of the five Du Quoin miners on trial in Union county circuit court here for the slaying of Laverne Miller, 14-year-old Du Quoin school girl.
      More than 20 witnesses have already testified in behalf of the five men alleged to be implicated in the death of the girl, who was shot down on April 6 by gunmen who sped past her home in an automobile.
      The witnesses, some of whom were, arrested on April 7 in a general roundup of Progressive miners following the slaying, described the occurrences at the Du Quoin city hall, where those in custody were taken, for questioning.
      They described noises they said came from a room in which the men E were being questioned and related the observed marks of mistreatment on the faces and bodies of Emery Albers, Barney Bossetto and Ralph Shingleton, three of the defendants from whom police secured statements later admitted in evidence at trial. A statement was also secured, by, coercion, the defense contended, from, Otis Battaglia, another defendant, Sam Ferro, the fifth man on trial, made none.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, August 11, 1933, Page 2
Four Get Life One 40 Years For Murdering Girl
      Jonesboro, Ill., Aug, 11. -- (United Press.) -- Five Duquoln, III., miners affiliated with the Progressive Miners- Union charged with the killing of the 14-year-old daughter of United Mine Worker, were found guilty by a circuit court judge here last night and four of the men were sentenced to life imprisonment, the other to 40 years.
      LaVerne Miller was fatally wounded in her home in Duquoin on the night of April 6 when a volley of shots from a speeding automobile raked the house.
      Robertt Shingleton, Sam Ferro, Otis Bataglla and Barney Bossetto were sentenced to life. Emery Albers who testified the car used by the slayers was stolen from him received a 40 year sentence.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, August 21, 1933, Page 2
Miners and Wives Meet
      Mascoutah, III., Aug. 21 -- (UP) -- Approximately 2500 Progressive union miners and their wives met here for one of a series of mass meetings held by the union in Illinois coal fields yesterday.

September 1933
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, September 24, 1933, Page 4
Announcement of Expansion Plans for Progressive Union is Withheld
      GILLESPIE, Sept. 23. -- (AP) -- Definite plans of the Progressive Miners of America for expanding their union organization under the NRA's bituminous coal code had not been announced today as the executive board continued its session at Gillespie headquarters.
      President Claude Pearcy went to Springfield today, arranged to confer with Gov. Horner on Monday morning and declined to comment on the status of the mine labor controversy.
      George W. Dowell of Du Quoin and Leal Reese of Taylorville,the Progressive attorneys, held the floor today, explaining the complicated code which is to become , effective for the entire industry a week from Monday.
      A campaign for increased membership and provision for its unemployed were said to be under discussion by leaders of the union.

October 1933
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, October 5, 1933, Pages 1 & 5
Strikers Surround Mine and Open Fusillade After Barricading Roads and Cutting Communication
-- Many Reported Wounded.

Harrisburg, Oct. 5 -- (UP) -- Heavily armed Progressive pickets deploying about the Peabody Coal company's mine No. 43, wounded 12 of the 25 guards In a renewal of mine factional warfare here today. The miners, armed with rifles and machine guns, refused to surrender their position altho 200 national Guardsmen were rushing to the battle scene.
      W. C. Craig , mine superintendent, was trapped with guards at the shaft early today when nearly 200 Progressive miners surrounded the entrance and began firing.
      Craig, by telephone, said that 12 of his men had been wounded and that "If help doesn't come pretty quick, they'll probably get us all.
      Leaders of the attack disregarded warnings that national guardsmen were en route. Sheriff Choisser of Saline county said he feared that the miners might attempt to fight the guardsmen.
      "The situation looks awfully bad," Choisser said , and I fear additional bloodshed If the pickets refuse to surrender to guardsmen."
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, October 6, 1933, Pages 1 & 5
Guards with Fixed Baygnets Stop Reign of of Terror; Score of Men Injured
      HARRISBURG, Oct. 5. -- (AP) -- The siege of Peabody Coal Mine No. 43 and the bombing of homes, a hotel and a railroad bridge were stopped by state troops with fixed bayonets after a reign of terror lasting many hours. A score of men were wounded.
      The army of 1,500 snipers who had poured a shower of lead into the mine and fired on United Mine workers bound for work vanished as the first of six national guard companies double-timed to the scene of the all night battle.
Shoot Dozen Workers
      The gunners, sympathizers with the Progressive mine union, left one of their own men wounded and shot a dozen United Mine Workers and three tourists on state route 13 in their better fight for jobs. Barred from work in the home field by Peabody's contract with the United Mine Workers, the Saline county Progressives had drawn a 15 mile line of battle around Mine 43 and sent 5,000 shots across the highway and into the coal mine.
      A sullen, silence fell upon Harrisburg as the khaki clad soldiers cleared the road, and under command of Lt. Col . Robert W. Davis, commenced a search for weapons.
Guns Are Confiscated
      Rifles, pistols, shotguns were confiscated by the guardsmen and the armored truck that preceded the column of United Mine Workers toward the mine in the early morning was seized.
      At Washington, the formal protest of the Progressive Miners union was filed with the department of justice, accusing the Illinois operators of violating the coal industry code by refusing to deal with their union.
      Government officials said the complaint would be handed to the national recovery administration for investigation.
      For hours during the early morning the mine staff at No. 43 stood by helpless while constant rain of fire spatter about the workings. Several men were wounded, and lay bleeding on the floor of the mine garage while S. L. Anderson, manager, frantically telephoned for help.
Ambulances Turn Back
      Twice ambulances started from Harrisburg and Marion to bring out the wounded, but both turned back from the danger zone. It was not until Company K arrived from Cairo and stifled the gunfire that medical aid could be brought through.
      In the same night of terror the Big Four railroad bridge near the mine property was dynamited, power lines were cut leaving the place in darkness accentuated by the intermittent flashes of fire from the guns, and the small frame structure of the Grand hotel at Eldorado was wrecked by a bomb.
      SPRINGFIELD, Oct. 5 -- (AP) -- After hearing all sides of the Illinois coal controversy, Donald Richberg, chief counsel for the national recovery administration, today decided to submit the dispute to the recovery administration at Washington and to the national labor board in the hope that a settlement can be worked out.
      Richberg's decision to take the Illinois situation before the government has interested itself directly in any way in rival union warfare which has been going on in the state's coal fields for more than a year and which caused a new outburst of violence at Harrisburg today.
      The NRA counsel announced tonight when he left a meeting called by Gov. Henry Homer and attended by representatives of operators and both unions, the . United Mine Workers of America and Progressive Miners of America, that he would return o Washington immediately to arrange to put thee 4 controversy directly up to General Hugh Johnson, administrator of the recovery act, and Senator Robert Wagner of New York, chairman of the national labor arbitration board.
Studies Situation
      Richberg made a complete study of the situation, conferring privately earlier in the day with the governor and Montgomery S. Winning, assistant attorney general. He said he was "somewhat encouraged" about the outlook for settlement although he said will be needed to make the necessary adjustments.
      "There have been suggestions made from which I think we can work out a proposal which will be helpful," he said. "I made a general effort to induce all parties to take whatever steps they could to prevent a repetition of the outbreak at Harrisburg, and they promised to do this.
States Have Part
      Coal industry control, he said, is not up to the United States government alone, but also to the states, whose duty it is to preserve order.
      Governor Homer issued a statement in which, he said the recovery administration through its general counsel "has consented to aid in an effort to settle the Illinois coal controversy."
      Mr. Richberg came here today at my suggestion, the governor's statement continued, and has conferred with the representatives off both miners organizations and with Illinois coal mine operators.
Changes Entire Aspect
      "The coal code, now in effect, changes the entire aspect of the dispute by virtue of the fact that the coal code is a federal promulgation. The Illinois coal mine dispute automatically has become an appropriate subject for federal intervention and possible arbitration. The state of Illinois has no authority under the national industrial recovery act to interpret or to enforce the coal code. These powers are reserved strictly for the federal government.
      "I am hopeful that Mr. Richberg may be able to suggest some satisfactory solution to the controversy, and I base my hope on the fact that the federal government has helpfully intervened in a strike mine fields of Pennsylvania.
      "Needless to say, I have assured Mr . Richberg that the state will co-operate with him to the fullest extent of its resources in its efforts to restore peace to this large and important industry of our state."
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, October 6, 1933, Page 1
NRA Official Is Enroute to Washington to Report On Battle At Harrisburg
More Than Score Wounded Before Arrival of Troops Ends Hostilities
-- Witnesses Describe Scene in Mine as "Terrible."

      Harrisburg, Oct. 6. -- (United Press.) -- Federal Intervention in southern Illinois spectacular coal mine war appeared a strong probability today as all effort of state and local authorities have failed to effect more than a temporary truce.
      Bullet riddled property of the Peabody Coal Co.'s mine No. 43, scene of a sanguinary clash between rival union miners yesterday, was under guard of 334 Illinois National Guardsmen under command of Lt. Col . Robert W. Davis, of Carbondale.
      Twenty-one persons, mostly members of the United Mine Workers of America, but including one woman, Mrs. Forrest Priest of Harrisburg, nursed gun-shot and flying glass wounds as a result of a 15-hour siege of the mine early yesterday.
      Responsibility for the violence here was placed on members of the Progressive Miners union, an outgrowth of the U. M. W. of A., and its bitter antagonist. Peabody has refused to recognize the Progressives, and has displaced its members with the older union's men.
      Preliminary federal intervention thru the NRA, meanwhile , was an actuality today, as Donald R. Richberg, chief counsel of that body, was in route to Washington to report to Admin. Johnson. As an outcome of a conference at Springfield with Gov. Homer and representatives of the men and operators, a tentative basis has been found for a solution of the problem, Richberg announced.
      Arrival of the troops yesterday quickly ended the disorders. They were sent sweeping thru the Harrisburg square, clearing it of all loiters. With a return of order, report be of many spectacular incidents connected with the siege.
Ambushed From Ditches
      Most of the injured were shot when they appeared at the mine for work about 5 a. m. They were ambushed b y men lying in ditches on each side of the road.
rest of article is mostly illegible
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, October 7, 1933, Page 1
Business Reported on Upgrade As President Moves to End Strikes; Mine Closed at Order of Horner
National Guard Closes Harrisburg Peabody Mine to Avoid Fresh Disturbances in Labor Warfare
      HARRISBURG, Oct. 6. -- (AP) -- State troops shut down the Peabody coal mine No. 43 today by order of Gov. Henry Homer to avoid fresh disturbances.
      The scene of yesterday's gun battle between Progressive and United Mine Workers seemed tranquil on the surface today, the mere presence of six national guard companies stifling any violent outbreaks.
      Nevertheless it was deemed advisable to close the workings; from which the Progressive Miners, strong in this community, are barred by Peabody's contract with the United Mine Workers union. Gov. Homer said he used his police powers in directing the shutdown, and company officials at Chicago indicated they would make no attempt to resume operations before Monday.
      At Sahara mine No. 1 today 650 Progressive miners quit work, but officers of the union said the walkout was unauthorized and a mistake. Resumption of work was expected tomorrow.
      Agnes Burns Wieck, president of the women's auxiliary of the Progressives; announced today that petitions will shortly be circulated in Saline county asking the Governor to withdraw the troops immediately. The petitions, now printed, read :
      "We do not believe an emergency exists to warrant the presence of the militia in this county."
      The following wording appears on the petition :
      "We the undersigned citizens, taxpayers and electors of Saline county hereby subscribe our names as evidence of protest to the call and order of the Illinois state militia in Saline county at this time and as reasons therefore give the following:
      "1. We do not believe an emergency exists to warrant the presence of the militia in this county.
      "2. That Saline county is deeply obligated financially and cannot, pay for the presence and services of the militia and we protest the taxation of our property to pay such services.
  victim of sniper's attack in October 1933
      An army of 1,500 snipers, sympathizers with the Progressive Mine union, poured a shower of lead into a coal mine at Harrisburg, wounding a dozen rival union men and three auto tourists before state troopers broke the siege. Here is shown one of the victims lifted into an ambulance.
(Associated Press photo)
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, October 18, 1933, Page 5
      Springfield, Ill., Oct. 18. -- ( UP ) -- A state wide "march" on state capital city tomorrow to demonstrate against federal inaction in settling a factional mine union controversy in Illinois Is planned by Progressive Miners of America, the United Press was informed today. Thousands of miners and sympathizers, it was said , will participate in the proposed march. Authority for the report that such a march will be held came from Stanley of Taylorvllle, president of a progressive local there. Hoe said the "march would supplement a one day strike In all progressive mines in Springfield and picketing of other union mines operating under wage scale agreement with the United Mine Workers of America.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, October 19, 1933, Page 1 & 3
      Washington, Oct. 19.
rest of article is mostly illegible
Two Companies of State Troops Held in Readiness For Possible Outbreak at Mass Meeting Called Following Shooting
      Springfield, Ill., Oct 19 . -- (United Press.) -- Violence in a factional mine union war in Illinois was renewed here today with the shooting to death of a member of the Progressive Miners of America as several thousand of the latter marched on Springfield to stage a demonstration to force federal settlement of the controversy.
rest of article is mostly illegible
(page 3)
      Washington, Oct. 19.
rest of article is mostly illegible
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, October 19, 1933, Page 5
BELLEVILLE, Ill., Oct. 18. -- AP -- Announcement of a march on Springfield tomorrow by Progressive miners was made here tonight by S. L. Jones, a member of the union's executive board.
      A state-wide holiday for all members of the Progressive miners has been declared tomorrow, and total membership of between 30,000 and 35,000 asked to take part in the demonstration.
      The Progressive miners, it was announced, will converge on mines of the Peabody coal company in and, around Springfield. The company has refused to recognize the Progressives, employing only United Mine Workers. The Progressives are expected to reach the Peabody properties about 6 a. m. Jones said the demonstration would be orderly "and no trouble is expected."
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, October 20, 1933, Page 1
Progressives Are Not In Good Standing With U. S. Government
New Group Blamed For Violence In Illinois Coal Fields And Governor Is Instructed To Enforce Order
-- Springfield Is Quiet.

      Washington, Oct. 20. -- (United Press.) -- President John L. Lewis of the United Mine Workers asserted today that the report of NHA Council Donald Richberg on the Progressive Miners union situation in Illinois vindicated the stand of the U. M. W. A. It supports every contention previously made by the United Mine Workers, Lewis said.
      Violence in the area, he asserted, has all been incidental to the purpose of the so-called Progressive Miners union to take by force and intimidation the wage contracts to which they were not a party and in which they had no legal right to participation.
      The official statement of the recovery administration, Lewis said makes clear that the machinery of the government will not be used to impair the wage agreements of the United Mine Workers, and, in effect calls upon the governor of Illinois to enforce the law and give protection to citizens in their inalienable right to peacefully follow their employment under wage contracts negotiated thru the medium of collective bargaining.
      The NRA stand he said should open the eyes of many miners in Illinois to the fact that they have been deceived and deluded by false promise on the part of a few designing leaders and petty politicians.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, October 21, 1933, Page 1
Miners in Protest March on Springfield
PMWA workers march on Springfield in October 1933
Arriving in small groups such as the pictured here, an estimated 5,000 Illinois coal miners have marched on Springfield, the state capital, to protest working agreements effective in Illinois soft coal fields.
(Associated Press photo)
Showers Dampen Ardor Of Miners At State Capital
Ranks of 5,000 Progressive Coal Workers, Wives Dwindle Steadily During Day.
SPRINGFIELD, Oct. 20 -- AP --
The Progressive Miners of America union tonight suggested a nine point program for peaceful settlement of the Illinois coal mine strife Involving revision of working contracts or a statewide, state-sponsored referendum in which diggers would choose between two rival union organizations.
SPRINGFIELD, Oct. 20. -- AP -- A heavy downpour of rain aided the authorities tonight in maintaining order as the ranks of some 5,000 Progressive miners and their wives, who had marched to the capital, dwindled during the day.
      Differences of opinion as to the Union's course of action developed among leaders of the Progressive union at a mass meeting of several thousands of the miners held late in the day.
      The Progressive union is protesting the alleged barring of miners affiliated with their organization from coal mines having contracts with the United Mine Workers of America.
      Claude Pearcy, president of the Progressive union, opposed picketing of mines by any but those miners who are now out of work.
      Mrs. Elizabeth Burns Wieck, president of the union's auxiliary, urged a strike of all members of the Progressive union whether or not they are now employed.
      Both leaders were joined by others in their proposals but the mass meeting postponed decision.
      After a meeting of the executive board of the union, Pearcy said the union would ask for a referendum to determine to which union -- the Progressives or United Mine Workers of America, Illinois miners wished to belong.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, October 21, 1933, Pages 1 & 3
Violence Breaks Out Anew As Progressives Prepare To Surrender
Leader Advises Marchers to End "Holiday" and Return to Jobs -- Strikers Resume Work in 17 of 30 Belleville Mines.
      Springfield, Ill.
rest of article is mostly illegible
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, October 29, 1933, Page 1
Bomb Explodes In Front Yard of Miner s Home
SPRINGFIELD, Ill., Oct. 28. -- AP -- A black powder bomb exploded in the front yard of the home of Kohn Kerar, a member of the Progressive Miners of America union, tonight. No damage was done.
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, October 29, 1933, Page 1
Dowell Will Seelt Injunction Against Coal Companies
SPRINGFIELD, Ill., Oct. 28. -- AP -- George Dowell , attorney for the Progressive Miners of America, said tonight he would go ahead with plans to seek an injunction against Illinois coal companies who Progressives charge are discriminating against members of their union in violation of the NRA coal code.

November 1933
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, November 2, 1933, Page 3
Progressives Return to U. M. W.
      Springfield, Ill. --(UP) -- Declaring that many miners of the Progressive Miners of America have signified their willingness to return to the United Mine Workers of America in Saline county, representatives of the latter union today formally requested Gov. Henry Horner to authorize the Peabody Coal company to re-open two mines in Saline county.

December 1933
Clyde Williams
The Daily Illini, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, December 10, 1933, Page 1
Fight Flares on Galatia s Main Street; Third Man Injured

      HARRISBURG, Dec. 10. --(AP) -- Two men, leaders of rival factions of mine workers, were slain in a gun battle on Galatia's main street tonight. A third man was wounded. The dead men are William Swain, president of the provisional United Mine Workers' local of Peabody No. 47 mine at Harco, and Clyde Williams, a Progressive.
      J. L. Pittman , a United Mine Worker, was wounded in the shoulder. He was-taken to a hospital at West Frankfort.
      Witnesses said Williams and a friend, whose identity was not known, were walking down the street when they met Swain and Pittman. As they met, investigators were told, someone started shooting. It was not learned immediately who fired the first shots.
The Daily Register, Harrisburg, Illinois, December 14, 1933, Pages 1 & 6
      That many people anticipating trouble, followed William Swain and Loren "Red" Pittman down the main street of Galatia to the scene of the double slaying Saturday night; that Clyde Williams knocked Swain down, before the shooting occurred, after beiong hit by Pittman; and that Harold Culley was with Pittman and Swain in Lambert's cafe before the shooting were a few of the facts made public for the first time last night in the double inquest into the deaths of Williams and Swain.
      After hearing similar stories of several eye witnesses, the coroner's jury found Williams came to his death of gunshot wounds inflicted by William Swain, and that Swain came to his death of gunshot wounds inflicted by Williams. Pittman's name was not mentioned in either verdict.
Tell of Shooting
      Vivid accounts of the shooting were told by Hoyt Edwards and Paul Jones of Galatia who said they were standing a few feet behind Swain and Pittman during the shooting.
      Edwards said he saw some people following Swain and Pittman going west on the main street and he followed them, expecting trouble. He said they stopped walking about 200 feet west of "Dutch" Shelton's cafe, and were talking to Williams who was across the street.
      Williams crossed the street to the sidewalk where Pittman and Swain were standing, Edwards said, and by that time Edwards had crowded to a few feet behind Swain. Pittman struck Williams staggering him, and Williams knocked Swain down, Edwards said. Then Williams turned and shot Pittman, and by that time Swain got up. The two emptied their guns at each other, Edwards said.
Cries "I'm Shot"
      Swain turned around after the shooting and cried, "I'm shot!" Edwards said. He saw Swain was gioing to fall and attempted to catch him but he failed, and he saw his gun fall to the ground just north of the sidewalk. He saw the gun no more, he said. Pittman started walking east on the main street toward Dr. Gratton's office, and Williams was walking across the street to Lambert's cafe.
      This story was about the same as was told by Paul Jones.
      Roy Riddle and Charles Dalton saw the shooting from Riddle's yard across the street. they too believed trouble was brewing just before the shooting and stepped out into the yard to see it.
      Riddle saw Williams coming back across the street after the shooting and yelled to him to stop but the cry was unheeded. They carried Swain to Dr. Grattons's office, and he died when they reached the office ands placed him in the chair.
      Robert Bovinet was about 200 feet from the scene but saw little because the crowd was in the way. Lancve Karnes was about twelve from Swain and Pittman when the shootingoccurred. Stanley Maples saw the flashes of the guns.
See no "Knucks"
      None of the eye witnesses saw any of the three with a pair of "knucks" which were turned over to the officers and which were said to have been found at the scene. Eight .380 shells were turned over to the sheriff also, but the automatic from which they were fired was never found.
      Harold Culley testified he was with Swain and Pittman in Harco earlier in the evening and that he rode to Galatia with them. In Lambert's where they were eating a sandwich, Swain asked Lambert if he would go to work at the mine Tuesday. Clyde Williams came from the kitchen to the dining room, and spoke to Swain, Pittman and Culley, the latter testified. He said both Swain and Pittman smelled of liquor, but they did not appear to be intoxicated. He added that they had taken no drink while he was with them. He said he was in Shelton's cafe when the shooting occurred.
      James Lambert told of their being in the cafe, and testified that there was no argument bewtween either him of Williams and the two, Pittman and Swain,. Ralph Smith, Orval Gulsby, Hubert Bond and Willaims were in the cafe at the time, he said.
      After the shooting Williams came in and said, "I'm shot, get a doctor," Lambert testified. Prentiss Williams asked his father who shot him and Williams replied, Swain, Pittman and Culley," according to Lambert's testimony, Williams walked upstairs and was put in bed where Dr. Garrison administered first aid.
Ordered Away
      Orval Gulsby and Wayne Byrd testified that a few minutes before the shooting they were standing in front of Shelton's cafe, and they were ordered out of town by Swain and Pittman. They then walked down the main street toward Lambert's cafe, and entered the cafe without seeing Williams. They both testified they hardly knew Swain and Pittman. Swain seemed provoked at Byrd and cursed him, Byrd testified. Pittman told Gulsby to get along with Byyrd, Gulsby said. Neither saw the shooting.
      Murray Stinson, deputy sheriff, who with Sheriff Eugene Choisser, Deputy Hal Bynum and Allen Davis investigated the shootingSaturday night, testified as to the wounds of the fatally wounded men.
      Coroner James Lyon was assisted by State's Attorney John Kane. A large but orderly crownd attended the inquest.
The Daily Register, Harrisburg, Illinois, December 12, 1933
Williams Rites Today; Swain's Held Yesterday
      The funeral of Clyde Williams was held at Brushy today and was attended by a large crowd of miners from Harrisburg, as well as his personal friends from Galatia.
      William Swain's funeral was held at the Methodist church in Galatia yesterday afternoon.
      Swain, president of the Peabody 47 local of U. M. W. A., and Williams, a Progressive miner and township road commissioner of Galatia township, were fatally wounded and Loren "Red" Pittman, treasurer of the Peabody 47 local of U. M. W. A., was seriosly wounded in a gun battle on the streets of Galatia Saturday night.
      Pittman is in serious condition in the West Frankfort Union hospital.
      No dates have been set for the inquest according to James Lyon.
The Daily Register, Harrisburg, Illinois, December 12, 1933
U. M. W. A. Files Intervening Petition
DANVILLE, ILL., (UP) -- Counsel for the United Mine Workers of America Monday filed and intervening petition in federal court in the action brought by the Progressive Miners of America for an injunction to restrain several coal companies from operating in alleged violation of the NRA coal code.
      Judge W. C. Lindley set December 21, as the date for final hearing on the petition for injunction.
      Counsel for the Progressives filed the suit for injunction several weeks ago, contending that a number of coal companies were violating the national coal code in discriminating against members of the Progressives' Union in employment of miners.
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, December 16, 1933, Page 2
Progressive Miners Denied Injunction Writ
      Peoria, Ill. Dec. 16.
rest of article is mostly illegible
Urbana Daily Courier, Urbana, Illinois, December 24, 1933, Page 1
Mayor Orders Police to Close All Saloons in City after Shooting Outbreak
      TAYLORVILLE, Dec. 23. -- (AP) -- Four persons were shot today and one of them was injured critically in what police believe is a revival of "war" originating over miners' troubles that since September, 1932 has been responsible for 49 bombings.
      Immediately after the shooting, Mayor J. W. Stresser ordered police to close all beer parlors in the city. He ordered headquarters of the Progressive union closed, also.
      The wounded men, shot in a street brawl before a downtown saloon, were:
      Jack Glasgow, president of a sub-district of the United Mine Workers of America. He was wounded in the hand and scalp.
      Tony Rogazcenski, a member of the Progressive Miners of America, shot in the right leg.
      Pat Kain, Jr., left leg wound, a member of United Mine workers.
      Dominic Hunt, shot in abdomen; formerly a Progressive, but lately returned to work as United miner. He was the most seriously injured.
      Confused stories of the shooting hindered State's Attorney John Goale in his investigation and no official announcement was made of the details of the fight or shooting.
      In September, 1932, the offices of the Daily Breeze, newspaper, and the United Mine Workers of America were bombed and Illinois national guard troops were sent to the scene with Mandel Hardin in charge. Except one week, the troops were here until November 28 when they were removed.

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