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Coal & Coal Mining
History & Genealogy

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West Virginia
Paint Creek & Cabin Creek Strike of 1912 - 1913
as told in Illinois newspapers
Articles of Note :
      THE SHOCKING STORY By Mary Boyle O'Reilly

The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Number 125
Friday, May 31, 1912, Page 1
      Charleston, W. Va., May 31. -- Striking minors of the Paint Creek Colliery company attempted to massacre a dozen Baldwin Mine guards today, ambushing the unarmed men as they were going from work to breakfast. Three hundred shots were fired but the men escaped miraculously.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Number 125
Friday, May 31, 1912, Page 4
Miners Fail to Agree on Scale.
      Wheeling, W. Va., May 31. -- The subscale committee of the miners and operators of the eastern Ohio district affecting, many thousand miners reported to the conference today that they are unable to reach an agreement.
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The Ashton Gazette, Ashton, Illinois
Volume 18, Number 15
Thursday, June 6, 1912, Page 2
      Striking miners at the Paint Creek Colliery company at Mucklow made an attempt to massacre a dozen Baldwin mine guards by ambushing them. Three hundred shots were fired. All escaped but Detective Dupp, who was wounded in the side. The wound was not fatal.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 1, Number 258
Wednesday, July 24, 1912, Pages 26 & 28
      Charleston, W. Va. -- Deputy Sheriff Sutpkin, who was wounded during riot in Paint Creek mining section, rushed to operating table in hope of saving life, men arrested in connection with shooting.
Page 28
      Charleston, W. Va. -- Adj. Gen. C. D. Elliott despatched troops to Paint Creek mining section following riot in which Deputy Sheriff Sutpkin was reported killed.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 1, Number 260
Friday, July 26, 1912, Page 1, 24 & 25
      Charleston, W. Va., July 26. -- In the heart of the Paint Creek section, practically isolated from communication with the outside world, seven Baldwin detectives and three miners are reported to have been killed this morning when a Baldwin machine gun was blown up by dynamite. It is known that two detectives were shot and killed from ambush last night.
      Among the men believed to have been killed when the dynamite was exploded was E. W. Ganjot, noted Baldwin detective. Gaujot was not instantly killed when the bomb exploded. He begged to be taken to the hospital, but no mercy was shown him.
      A continuous rattle of rifle fire could be heard in the hills all day. Women and children have fled the region. The state troops, in summer camp in Pennsylvania, have been ordered to the scene of the carnage.
      Sheriff Smith of Kanawha county attempted to get into the Paint Creek valley this morning to investigate the shooting of the two detectives last night, but was driven back by miners.
      The valley is impregnable. It is practically impossible to get into the narrow gully except from the north end, and that is barricaded. The only information secured from the bloody district is when some courier breaks through the brush. Trains have been annulled, and telephone and telegraph wires have been cut.
      The uprising at Paint Creek had been expected since April 20, when the miners strike began there. Frequent clashes between armed guards and strikers have nourished hatred and bitterness.
      The miners petitioned the courts to enjoin the mine operators along the creek from maintaining armed guards, reciting terrible conditions. The court refused to grant a temporary restraining order.
Page 24
      Charleston, W. Va. -- General riot at Paint Creek, where several thousand miners have been on strike since April. Men are all armed and have cut wires down.
Page 25
      Charleston, W. Va. -- Wm. Springer killed and Wm. Phipps seriously wounded by striking miners near Paint Creek mining district. Both detectives.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Number 161
Saturday, July 27, 1912, Page 3
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Armed Men Fire on Detectives With Fatal Effect
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Thousands of Paint Creek (W. Va.) Workmen, Out on Strike, In Very Ugly Mood.
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      Charleston. W. Va., July 27. -- A general riot on Paint creek, this county, where several thousand miners have been on strike since spring, was reported here. William Springer, a Baldwin detective, and William Phaup, head of the Baldwin detective forces in the coal fields, coming down Paint creek road on a hand car, were fired upon by armed miners. Springer was killed and Phaup seriously injured.
      The scene of the shooting was two miles below Mucklow. Armed miners proceeded up the creek. but have cut all wires. General Elliott. with a company of militia is at Peytonia, but cannot be reached by telephone.
      The rioters are believed to have come from Boomer and other points on the north side of the Kanawha river. Sheriff S. P. Smith is endeavoring to ascertain the situation and may send deputies out.
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Urbana Courier-Herald, Urbana, Illinois
Volume 15 Number 196
Saturday, July 27, 1912, Page 1
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Armed Men Fire on Detectives With Fatal Effect -- Militia May Be Called Out
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      Charleston, W. Va. July 27. -- A general riot on Paint creek, this county, where several thousand miners have been out on strike since spring. Is reported here.
      William Springer, a Baldwin detective, and William Phaup, head of the Baldwin detective forces in the coal fields, coming down Paint creek road on a hand car, were fired upon by armed miners. Springer was killed and Phaup seriously injured.
      The scene of the shooting was two miles below Mucklow. Armed miners proceeded up the creek, but have cut all wires. General Elliott with a company of militia is at Peytonia, but cannot be reached by telephone.
      The rioters are believed to have come from Boomer and other points on the north side of the Kanawha river. Sheriff S. P. Smith is endeavoring to ascertain the .situation and may send deputies out.
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Urbana Courier-Herald, Urbana, Illinois
Volume 15 Number 196
Saturday, July 27, 1912, Page 1
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Two Battalions of National Guardsmen Out in West Virginia.
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      Charleston, W. Va., July 29. -- Plans of the battalion of the Second regiment, West Virginia National Guard, to camp at Mucklow were frustrated when reports of trouble with the miners were received from Tombsburg and Burnwell, where several of the Paint Creek collieries are located. One company was sent to Burnwell and another to Tombsburg. Reports received here state that many armed miners have been going to the upper end of Paint creek.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 1, Number 262
Monday, July 29, 1912, Pages 27 & 29
      Charleston, W. Va. -- 22 miners arrested for participation in Paint Creek riots. Are held in box car.
Page 29
      Charleston, W. Va. -- Gov. Glasscock ordered another battalion of national guard to proceed to Paint Creek, where strike riots are in progress.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 1, Number 264
Wednesday, July 31,1912, Page 1
      Charleston, W. Va., July 31. -- Two thousand miners from the Paint Creek district started at dawn for Sterling, bent on driving every private detective employed by the mine owners from the valley.
      Four hundred militiamen are trailing the armed strikers. A clash is imminent. The soldiers are handicapped by their ignorance of the mountain passes.
      A detachment of militiamen was fired on from ambush last night, three of the guardsmen being injured.
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The Ashton Gazette, Ashton, Illinois
Volume 18, Number 23
Thursday, August 1,1912, Page 2
      During a general riot on Paint creek, near Bucklow, W. Va., where several thousand miners have been on strike since spring, William Springer, a detective, and William Phaup, head of the detective forces in the coal fields, was fired upon by armed miners. Springer was killed and Phaup seriously injured.
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St. Anne Record, St. Anne, Illinois
Volume 23, Number 12
Friday, August 2, 1912, Page 6
Miners Go on Rampage.
      Charleston, W. Va., July 29. -- With one murdered detective in their wake and another wounded, probably fatally, a large party of armed miners went on a rampage in the Paint creek district Friday.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Number 169
Saturday, August 3, 1912, Page 8
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      Charleston, West Va., Aug. 3. --(Special to the Atlas.)-- Governor Glasscock today ordered all of the state militia, not already on the way, to proceed immediately to the Paint Creek mining district where the situation between the troops and striking miners is said to be serious. Another outbreak is expected any time. The entire district will be placed under martial law and the militia have been ordered to disarm all of the strikers.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 1, Number 273
Saturday, August 10, 1912, Page 27
      Charleston, W. Va. -- Soldiers engaged in slight battle in Paint Creek district this morning. No one seriously injured.
      Soldiers claim they were fired upon from hills, but search failed to prove this assertion.
      Strikers resent action of union officials in trying to get them to go back to work.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 1, Number 276
Wednesday, August 14, 1912, Page 3
      Charleston, W. Va. -- Strikebreakers have been sent to Paint Creek and Cabin Creek mining districts, where strike troubles have kept soldiers busy.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 1, Number 294
Wednesday, September 4, 1912, Pages 26 & 27
      Charleston, W. Va., Sept. 4. -- Five thousand miners and their wives and children slept peacefully in the Paint Creek district last night for the first time since last April.
      For the day of the mine guard in West Virginia went out yesterday when Gov. Glasscock proclaimed martial law in the Paint Creek district, and the soldiers of the state seized the machine guns and rifles of the mine guards.
      Glasscock had been begged to proclaim martial law for a long time. He didn't want to do it. Martial law never before was proclaimed in West Virginia, and sentimentalists argued that it would be a blot on the fair fame of the state.
      It never occurred to these sentimentalists that when mine guards shot down miners; when mine operators used machine guns against miners and the wives of miners; when armed mine guards kicked miners out of their cabin homes; there was just as much of a blot on West Virginia's fame.
      But Glasscock has acted at last. Seven of the mine operators' cruel machine guns were seized at Paint Creek junction last night, and 1,500 rifles. Some of these rifles were taken from miners, but not many of them; most of them were those of the guards.
      Thus for the first time West. Virginia treated miner and wealthy mine owner alike. Heretofore any rifles carried by miners have been seized, but the state never touched any rifles and machine guns owned by mine owners:
      Today, Glasscock's commission went to Paint Creek to take testimony, authorized by the governor to probe every side of the situation including the brutalities of the mine guards and the pitiful wages paid the miners.
      The commission is composed of Bishop P. J. Donohue, of the Catholic diocese of Wheeling; S. L. Walker, of Fayetteville, lawyer and militia captain, and Fred O. P. Blue, state tax commissioner
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 1, Number 295
Thursday, September 5, 1912, Page 23
      Charleston, W. Va., Sept 5. -- A great delegation of miners from the Paint Creek district is coming here tomorrow to beg Gov. Glasscock to put an end to the iniquities of the mine guard system.
      The miners are safe from the brutalities of the mine guards just now, because Gov. Glasscock has put the district where the greatest trouble is under martial law.
      But the miners know that as soon as the soldiers, are withdrawn the armed mine guards will be put back by the mine owners and the old rule of terror once more be enforced.
      The delegation that will arrive tomorrow will be 3,000 strong. It will be led by Mother Jones. Banners will be carried, reading:
      "Martial law is all right but what after marital law?"
      Gov. Glasscock will be invited to answer that question, and he will be urged to promise that the day of the mine guard in West Virginia is over forever.
      Twenty mine guards, including the mayor of Bakdale, and several miners were arrested under the martial law edict last night. They were charged with disorderly conduct and thrown into jail at the railroad station, Paint Creek Junction.
      The rule of the soldiers works as quickly as a city court. In two days the military judges have tried 15 men. The judges can fix any penalty they please. All the penalties of law are suspended.
      The military today ordered a Socialist paper suppressed as "inflammatory." Free speech is one of the constitutional guarantees suspended by martial law.
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= = = = = = =
State of War
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 1, Number 296
Friday, September 6, 1912, Pages 1, 2 & 3
      Charleston, W. Va., Sept. 6. -- The strike-ridden Paint Creek district no longer is in West Virginia. It is not even in the United States. It is in the State of War.
      And if you, an American citizen, cross the Kanawaha river into this State of War; you immediately lose your citizenship and all your rights.
      You cannot make a speech, even if you are just dying to make a speech. If you try to make one you'll be arrested.
      You cannot stop with a couple of friends and discuss the weather, or you'll be arrested for unlawful assembly.
      If you're arrested, you will not be taken to jail. You will be taken to a guardhouse.
      When your trial comes up, you cannot get a trial by jury. You will be tried by six soldiers, and the punishment inflicted by those soldiers goes, for not even the supreme court of the United States.
      The king of this military principality, which is just 15 miles long and 4wide and has a population of 16,000 human souls, can interfere, is Adjutant General Elliott.
      Maybe the Czar of all the Russians has more power than Elliott, but King George of Britain and the president of the United States are mere two-spots compared with him.
      The majority of Elliott's subjects are miners, and they are darned glad that they have got out of the United States and into the State of War.
      The mine owners are quite peevish about Elliott's kingship. He interferes with their using their armed mine guards and machine guns to shoot down and oppress and torture and starve and make homeless the miners.
      You see, there is a strike going on in Paint Creek, and it has been going on for a long time and the miners are winning.
      They are winning chiefly because Gov. Glasscock of West Virginia forbade the mine owners to import any strikebreakers and told them what would happen to them if they did.
      As soon as the mine owners found they couldn't import scabs they tried another plan.
      They imported a few machine guns, capable of mowing down men at the rate of about half a hundred a minute, and a few hundred "detectives" of the Baldwin agency.
      The mine owners armed the "detectives" with rifles and revolvers and told them they wanted the strike ended.
      Then the "detectives" went to work. They turned miners and their wives and their children out of the pitiful shacks they called home; turned them out into the hills and told them they could die of exposure and starvation there.
      The miners naturally fought back, but it didn't do them very much good. There were more miners than "detectives," but the "detectives" were better armed. And, besides, there were the machine guns.
      This explains why the miners were so glad when Gov. Glasscock declared martial law in Paint Creek and that district no longer became part of the United States.
      For the very first thing King Elliot did when he arrived was to seize the machine guns of the mine owners and the rifles and revolvers of the mine guards.
      Then he gathered in 41 "detectives," and looked at his watch, and remarked that they had just exactly one hour to get out of the State of War, and that it would be unhealthy for them if they didn't take advantage of that hour.
      Then King Elliott called before him another of the detectives, one W. Y. Tucker, and explained to Tucker that he was going to make an example of him for the good of the State of War.
      King Elliott then charged Tucker with carrying revolvers without a state license, with impersonating an officer while a non-resident of the state, and a few other little odds and ends.
      King Elliott asked Tucker what he had to say for himself. Tucker had nothing to say.
      "Isn't it true that you killed a man in Jonesville, Va.?" asked: King Elliott.
      ''Yes, but it was in self defense," Tucker explained.
      "One year in the penitentiary said King Elliott, and the mine owners gasped.
      Tucker is the first mine guard ever sent to jail in West Virginia. Formerly mine guards were taken before country squires who were in league with the mine owners and who freed them.
      The gasping done by the mine owners when Tucker was sent to then pen -- without any chance of an appeal -- was nothing to what they did a little later.
      King Elliott took a stroll through the village streets of his kingdom. There were great piles of rubbish everywhere. This struck King Elliott as untidy, so he called the mine owners together.
      "Get that rubbish removed," he said.
      The mine owners removed the rubbish.
      King Elliott turned his attention to the railroads. He found that their cars were insanitary and there were heaps of garbage piled all along their right of ways. Evidently the railroads figured that anything was good enough for a lot of miners."
      King Elliott then called the railroad officials to him and ordered them to get their cars in sanitary condition and their right of ways cleaned up. Whereupon the railroads did a little gasping of their own. Also a little cleaning.
      The mine owners appealed to Gov. Glasscock to call King Elliott off and make Paint Creek part of the U. S. again, but Glasscock couldn't see it, and is more State of War than take any away right now.
      You can see why the mine owners object to martial law, and why the miners are so tickled to have it in their midst.
      Meantime, a commission appointed by Gov. Glasscock is investigating to. find, out what should come after the State of War. This commission is going to investigate the living conditions among the miners as well, as the stories of the mine owners.
      The great mines are all idle. The miners are receiving benefits from miners all over the United States. They can hold out for years. The mine owners are too greedy to be separated from their profits all that time.
      Charleston, W. Va Sept. 6. -- Ten thousand miners poured into this city today from Kanawaha county in a demonstration against the rule of the mine guards.
      This evening, they will parade to the capitol grounds and ask Gov. Glasscock if the mine guards are to be allowed to come back when martial law is over.
      "Let the soldiers stay for all time rather than let the guards come back," they will tell the governor.
      "Military government maybe despotic, but we are enjoying more freedom in the mines now than ever before. The soldiers have restored law and order. Life is safe.
      "If the state is able to do that, why cannot the state take over the mines altogether, since the mine owners, by abuse of their responsibilities, have lost right to ownership.
      "The present system is degrading manhood and, womanhood and childhood."
      Business men of Charleston are joining with the miners in their fight against the guard system. They will hold a meeting of protest tonight.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 61, Number 279
Saturday, September 7, 1912, Page 1
      Charleston, W. Va., Sept. 7. -- Artificer George Long, Company B, shot and killed one of an attacking party while on picket duty near Sharon in the Kanawha coal field today. A shooting is also reported to have occurred at Burnwell on Paint creek.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 1, Number 298
Monday, September 9, 1912, Pages 1, 2 & 3
      Charleston, W. Va., Sept. 9. -- A new plot of the mine owners of West Virginia against the striking miners has been uncovered.
      It is a plot equalled in baseness only by the dynamite one planned by Wm. M. Wood, head of the Wool Trust, against the striking textile workers of Lawrence.
      Compelled to abolish the mine guards they were using to drive the miners to desperation by Adjutant General Elliott, the mine owners were beaten.
      Their mines were idle. Gov. Glasscock had forbidden them to import strikers. There was no way in which they could work the mines and satisfy their greed.
      The striking miners, protected from murder, assault and starvation by the soldiers, were able to hold out for months. They had strike benefits to live on.
      So the mine owners turned to Russia to find some way to beat the miners into submission and a return to work at the old starvation wages.
      From Russia, they adopted the method, known in that country, as that of the "agent provocateur."
      In Russia, the agent prococateur is a spy who joins a revolutionary society, frames up a plot against the government, and then leads his comrades into a trap.
      The mine owners are trying to use that system against the miners, and cause the shooting of miners by the soldiers, the stirring up of trouble, and a turn in public sympathy.
      Saturday, in a little village in the hills in the Paint Creek district, a man standing in a group of miners, suddenly drew a revolver and began pumping lead at a soldier. The soldier shot and killed the man.
      The mine owners raised a great cry.
      "Now you see why we needed the mine guards," they cried. "These miners are all murderers. We had to have the guards or they would have murdered us and burned out our mines."
      That night men in other groups of miners fired upon the militia at various places in the district until marital law.
      The tide of public opinion, which had been with the miners, began to turn against them. The citizens of Charleston who petitioned Gov. Glasscock to abolish the mine guard system said they wished they could withdraw the petition.
      And then, today, the truth came out.
      The man who fired at the soldier, and whom the soldier killed, was not a miner. ' He was a mine guard, one of the imported "detectives" of the mine owners.
      There is high indignation and excitement among the miners today. They do not know whom to trust; they do not know which way to turn.
      "There are spies and 'agents provocateurs' scattered all over among the miners," said Vice President Frank J. Hayes, of the United Mine Workers today.
      "These spies want to start trouble, to cause a great battle between soldiers and miners.
      "Most of them are former mine guards. The mine guard's job depends upon trouble. Where law and order are enforced, there is no place for the mine guard.
      "There never used to be law and order in the hills of the mining country of West Virginia. So the mine guard throve there.
      "And then King Elliott as the miners love to call the adjutant general, came with his soldiers, and kicked the mine guards out, and seized the machine guns of the mine owners, and put on end to oppression and murder and starvation and homelessness.
      "Of course, the mine guards did not like it. It meant the loss of their jobs. Of course, the mine owners did not like it. It meant they had lost the strike because they cannot win this strike by lawful means, and they know that if Gov. Glasscock's commission ever finds out the truth, it will report against them.
      "So the mine owners and guards turned to the agent provocateur system. Mine guards were scattered through the mining villages with orders to start trouble by firing on the soldiers.
      "In every instance in which a soldier is fired upon a thorough investigation will show that the man who does the firing is not a miner.
      "The miner does not hate the soldier. The soldier has made the life of the miner safe. It was not safe before the coming of the soldiers.
      "But the plot will not Succeed, because we shall uncover the whole truth and make it public -- and the mine owners are more afraid of the truth becoming public than of anything else."
      Mother Jones, angel of the mining camps, left here for the State of War today, to get the military authorities to arrest her.
      Mother Jones was told the militia was just waiting for a chance to arrest her on the charge of making inflammatory speeches.
      "I'll give them the chance," she said. "I'd just as soon sleep in the guard house as in a hotel. I guess I'll go down to Cabin Creek."
      As soon as the military authorities heard she was coming the order that she be arrested on sight was given.
      Thousands of jobless men are trying to enlist in the state militia. Many are being accepted.
      "We are ready to cover the entire state with martial law if need be," said Adjutant General Elliott today.
      Five mine guards were arrested last night.
      Squads of soldiers are mobilized in the hills ready for any of the attacks which started Saturday night. Not a shot was fired last night or today.
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      Charleston, W. Va., Sept 9. -- Gov. Glasscock's commission will begin its investigation into the Kanawaha coal strike Wednesday.
      The commission will cover the entire situation in the Paint and Cabin Creek districts, where much blood has been shed and untold suffering caused since the beginning of the strike last April. Some of the points to be taken up are:
      The wages paid miners,
      The infamous guard system..
      The sanitary conditions.
      Comparison of wages and life of miners of West Virginia with those of workers in other lines.
      The strike began with a demand for increased wages. It resolved itself into a protest against the mine guard system. The miners demanded that the mine owners be stopped breaking the strike by, means of imported armed guards and machine guns.
      The mine guards provoked trouble. Blood was shed everyday or two. The armed mine guards drove the miners out of their homes, and left them shelterless in the hills.
      The miners smuggled in arms to fight the guards, and protect their homes. Then Gov. Glasscock proclaimed martial law, and peace settled in the district once more.
      Gov. Glasscock says that if the report of his commission justifies it, he will abolish the mine guard from West Virginia forever.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 1, Number 300
Wednesday, September 11, 1912, Page 26
      Charleston, W. Va., Sept 11. -- Fifty miners struck at Kingston today. This makes the strike in the Paint Creek district complete. For 15 miles up the valley and 3 across no coal is being mined.
      The "private detectives" driven out of the State of War are camped at Kingston and Keeferton. Martial law will soon be proclaimed there and the mine guards driven out again.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 1, Number 301
Thursday, September 12 1912, Page 4
      Charleston, W. Va., Sept. 12. -- The state of West Virginia has yielded to the demands of the coal mine owners.
      The mine owners are to be allowed to import strikebreakers, and the soldiers are to be used to protect the strikebreakers.
      Forty-two striking miners were arrested by Lieut. Adam T. Gaul and a squad of soldiers at Dorothy today. The miners had heard of the coming of strikebreakers. They were waiting for them when arrested.
      The prisoners were taken to Paint Creek Junction by special train. They will be tried by court martial there.
      The mine owners have advertised for strikebreakers. Vice President Frank J. Hayes, of the United Mine Workers, warned Gov. Glasscock that the importation of strikebreakers would cause an industrial upheaval throughout the state, and that the union could not be responsible for the consequences.
      Gov. Glasscock did not answer this warning; nor did he answer a similar warning given by State Senator Montgomery, expert advisor of the governor's commission, investigating the situation.
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The Weekly Pantagraph, Bloomington, Illinois
Volume 56, Number 37
Friday Morning, September 13, 1912, Page 1
      Two are Slain in West Virginia and Another So Badly Beaten He Will be an Invalid
      Charleston, W. Va.. Sept. 12. -- Word has been received here that two mine guards have been murdered and another so badly beaten that he will be an invalid for life. The killing:, it is alleged, took place in the mountains near Sharon on Cabin Creek.
      The forty-two miners arrested at Dorothy, Raleigh county, today on the charge of being armed with clubs and marching on the mine of the Four States Coal Company in an attempt to prevent other miners from resuming work, will be tried by the military commission on Friday.
      Several additional companies have been sent to the military headquarters at Paint Creek to be in readiness to move on a moment's notice.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Number 199
Wednesday, September 18 1912, Page 6
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Militia Commander Prepares for Extension of Martial Law.
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      Charleston, W. Va., Sept. 18. -- Gen. Elliott, commanding the West Virginia troops in the field, arranged to carry out a possible order from Governor Glasscock extending the martial law district in the Kanawha coal country.
      The refusal of the coal operators to accept the governor's plan for arbitration, it is stated by men who have come in from the Paint creek and Cabin creek districts, was received by the striking miners with evidences of dissatisfaction which the military authorities fear may become manifest in open demonstration.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 1 Number 306
Wednesday, September 18, 1912, Pages 2 & 3
      Charleston, W. Va., Sept. 18. -- Fifteen armed mine guards were arrested by soldiers in the hills of Fayette county today.
      Miners had complained frequently that mine guards were encamped in Fayette county, just outside the State of War, and were terrorizing the people.
      The miners said that almost every night bodies of mine guards swept down on the mining Villages, and shot them up, swearing as they did so that the miners would get it when martial law was over.
      The mine owners denied this over and over again. They said they had sent all their guards out of the state, and that they had collected their arms before doing so.
      Adjutant General Elliott, king of the State of War, decided to investigate. He sent two companies of soldiers into the hills. They came back with 15 guards, all fully armed.
      All the guards were captured in the hills back of Keeferton, where 80 men, women and children were driven from their homes last week. They will be tried before the military court. Many of them are non-residents of the state, and as such liable to penitentiary terms.
      Charleston, W. Va., Sept. 18. -- Those who howl anarchy whenever an attempt is made to change present day conditions should attend a few sessions of Gov. Glasscock's committee investigating the strike in the Cabin and Paint Creek districts.
      West Virginia coal fields have been having "present day conditions," and they've been having them bad. Yet lots of people would tell you it would be anarchy to change West Virginia's "present day conditions."
      The mine owners, it now appears, were not content with using guards to intimidate miners and to evict them and their wives from their homes when they didn't act the way the mine owners wanted.
      They also used their power over the men to control elections, and to put men who would be their tools into office.
      This came out yesterday afternoon, when T. C. Blizzard, a miner and brother of Judge Reese Blizzard, of Parkersburg, West Virginia, was called to the stand.
      "I refused to vote as the mine superintendent told me," said Blizzard. "I lost my job. When I was fired, I was told that I should have voted for those who gave me my bread and butter."
      These are "present day conditions" in West Virginia.
      Three weeks ago, the miners charged that there were ex-convicts among the mine guards. The mine owners denied it.
      J. R. Shanklin, a mine guard who tried to start trouble after martial law was declared, was sentenced to one year in jail by the military court and taken to Moundsville penitentiary. He was recognized there as a former prisoner.
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The Weekly Pantagraph, Bloomington, Illinois
Volume 56, Number 38
Friday Morning, September 20, 1912, Page 1
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Incendiaries Elude Sentries in Kanawha County, W. Va. and Ignite Carbon Co. Structure.
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      Charleston, W. Va . Sept. 19 -- Making their way thru a line of sentries, incendiaries early today poured oil on the tipple of the Carbon Coal Company, in Kanawha county and fired the building, which was destroyed with a loss of $10,000. Attempts have been made to operate the mine in defiance of the striking miners who are in the heart of the martial law district.
      Maj. James I. Platt, commanding the militia, and Maj. Thomas Davis, provost marshal, arrived at the scene of the fire later In the day with bloodhounds. The state soldiers in that section were divided into small searching parties and with bloodhounds are scouring the mountains for the incendiaries.
Puts Blame on Other Operators.
      D. C. Kennedy, secretary of the Kanawha Coal Operators' association, testifying before the West Virginia mining investigation commission, today declared the operators in other states were responsible for the present strike in this district. Mr. Kennedy in this assertion, backed up the contention of the operators frequently expressed that the joint competitive states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Western Pennsylvania, absolutely controlled the wage scales in other states, and he cited Iowa and Michigan as examples. These states he said, were not permitted to have a representative on the scale committee and have no voice in the scales even locally.
      Evidence was offered with a view of showing the joint competitive states are back of the movement to organize West Virginia for the purpose, It was contended, of controlling the wage scale in this state.
Commission Takes Recess.
      The commission took a recess until Saturday morning when it is expected President White and other international officers of the mine workers union will appear before the commission appointed by Governor Glasscock to investigate mining conditions.
      Saturday morning the mass meeting called by the governor is to be held here with a view of bringing about peace In the Cabin and Paint Creek districts.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 62 Number 12
Thursday, October 31, 1912, Page 3
      Charleston, W. Va. -- Evacuation of the Cabin creek Paint creek coal districts by the West Virginia national guard, it is expected, will be completed today. The authorities believe conditions again have become normal, although the coal miners' strike is still on at a number of mines.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 29
Thursday, October 31, 1912, Page 26
      Charleston, W. Va. -- Soldiers will probably leave Cabin Creek and Paint Creek coal districts shortly. Though miners' strike is still on, conditions have become normal.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 62 Number 26
Saturday, November 16,1912, Page 1
      Charleston, W. Va, Nov. 16. -- Governor Glasscock today declared martial law in the Cabin creek and Paint creek sections of the Kanawha coal field.
      The governor is determined to put an end to lawlessness in these districts. Two cars of strike breakers from the west were escorted to the mines by the militia this morning.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Number 219
Tuesday, November 19, 1912, Page 4
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Train Load of Strike Breakers to Coal Mines Are Shot At.
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      Charleston, W. Va., Nov. 19. -- Armed men fired into the town of Standard on Paint creek and. while the shooting continued for some time, no one is known to have been wounded. An hour later a train loaded with strike breakers on the Cabin creek of the Chesapeake & Ohio railroad was fired upon and a squad of militiamen on board replied. A strike of coal minor is in progress.
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Urbana Courier-Herald, Urbana, Illinois
Volume 26 Number 69
Friday, January 10, 1913, Page 2
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Crew Driven From Train by Shots From Ambush in Kanawha (W. Va.) Field
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      Charleston, W. Va., Jan. 10. -- Rioting was resumed in the Paint Creek section of the Kanawha coal field, where a strike has been in progress since last spring, according to reports received by the military authorities here. The Standard mine of the Standard Gas Coal company was fired and was reported as burning fiercely.
      The crew of a coal train was attacked near the Holly Grove railroad yards, not far from a camp maintained by the striking miners. The men were driven from the train by by scores of shots fired from ambush.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Monday, February 10, 1913, Page 4
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Attack Feared at the Mines in West Virginia.
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Six Companies of the State's National Guard Are Ready for Call to Strike Duty.
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      Charleston, W. Va., Feb. 19. -- Six companies of the Went Virginia National Guard are being held in their armories here ready at a moment's notice to depart to the Paint and Cabin Creek districts to take charge of the strike situation.
      According to information received here, Robert Estep, a miner, was killed during the rioting at Mucklow. There was considerable shooting at Holly Grove. It is said that men in the mines were accosted by strikers. The men at work were fired upon, and they in turn made attempts to drive the strikers away from that locality.
      The military authorities here believe the strikers are gathering at some point on Paint Creek for a night, attack. The miners occupy strong positions on the mountain sides, and are said to be closely guarding all approaches to the camps. If there should be any rioting, it is believed the troops will be sent to the scene of trouble at once.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Tuesday, February 11, 1913, Page 1
      Charleston, W. Va., Feb. 11. -- An attempt was made to wreck a train bearing three companies of militiamen bound for Paint Creek district. Guards found several sticks of dynamite under the rails. Nineteen men were arrested including J. F. Parsons, socialist leader.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 114
Tuesday, February 11, 1913, Pages 30 & 31
      Charleston, W. Va., Feb. 11. -- Seventeen men have been killed and a score wounded in the open warfare that has broken out in Kanawha coal strike district in the last 24 hours.
      A company of mine watchmen and strikebreakers met a body of armed strikers between Strucklov and Paint Creek. A terrific battle followed. 15 men were reported killed. Two of them were mine watchmen. The watchmen and strikebreakers were commanded by a state militia officer. Two men were reported killed in two other fights in the mountains. Wires into the district are down and details are meager. Martial law has been declared by Gov. Glasscock, and six companies of militia are in the strike district.
Page 31
      Charleston, W. Va. -- 12 miners, 4 strikebreakers dead after fight in Kanawha coal district.
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Urbana Courier-Herald, Urbana, Illinois
Volume 25 Number 56
Wednesday Evening, February 12, 1913, Page 6
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No More Fighting Between Strikers and Guards In West Virginia Coal Fields.
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      Charleston, W. Va., Feb. 12. -- With the arrival of militia in the Paint Creek district the situation, though critical, is quiet, following the battle between strikers and armed guards at Mucklow and at other points in that region. Estimates place the dead at from eight to eighteen. Until a search of the mountains can be made it wll be impossible to estimate the fatalities.
      Ten men injured during the rioting are in a critical condition and their recovery is doubtful.
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The Warren County Democrat, Monmouth, Illinois
Volume 23, Number 7
Thursday, February 13, 1913, Page 1
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Estimate Place Dead in Battle at From 8 to 18
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      Charleston. W. Va., Feb 12. -- With the arrival of militia in the Paint Creek district, the situation, though critical, was quiet following the battle between strikers and armed guards at Mucklow and at other points in that region. Estimates placed the dead at from eight to eighteen. Until a search of the mountains can be made It will be impossible to estimate the fatalities.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Friday, February 14, 1913, Page 4
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Soldiers Take 69 Men at Holley Grove on Paint Creek, West Virginia.
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      Charleston, W. Va., Feb. 11. -- A company of militia, commanded by Major Davis, surrounded the strikers' camp at Holley Grove on Paint creek and captured 69 men, every man in the camp. They were taken under heavy guard to Paint Creek Junction, where they will be tried for alleged participation in the disorders early this week, when a dozen or more men were killed and many wounded. There are about 125 strikers and sympathizers at Paint Creek Junction awaiting trial by the military commission, which planned to begin its work late this afternoon.
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The Weekly Pantagraph, Bloomington, Illinois
Volume 67, Number 7
Friday Morning, February 14, 1913, Page 1 & 3
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Riot Call is Sent in When Miners From the Strike District Invade the Capital.
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      Charleston, W. Va., Feb. 13. -- A series of important developments marked the coal strike situation today. In the coal fields under martial law, twenty-five miles from here, the militia was using stringent measures to stamp out violence, while, in this city it became necessary to sound a riot call to curb a demonstration started in the state building.
      A legislature, troubled because of charges of bribery, was in session when it was learned that miners and their sympathizers were marching here to take the state capital. There was some doubt of the truth of the report, but when a number of miners and others invaded the state building a riot call was turned in. Chief of Police Guill, With the entire police force at his heels, rushed to the state house. The halls of the capital were cleared, a number of persons receiving slight injuries.
Scores Are Arrested
      The legislature, however, was not disturbed and continued its deliberations. The mine of Holley Grove on Paint Creek, was raided today and sixty-nine men arrested. Under military escort, the men were rushed to Paint Creek Junction for trial before the military authorities, charged with participation in recent rioting.
Twenty-Six Reported Dead.
      Altho wire service from the troubled zone was partially established today, only meager details of the fierce mine riots in the strike district several days ago have been received here, it is now reported that the death list, instead of being sixteen, was twenty-six. Two of the dead were guards and the others miners, according to the report
"Mother" Jones Arrested
      "Mother" Jones was arrested tonight as she alighted from a train in the Charleston depot. She Is charged with inciting riot and complicity in the killing of Fred Bobbitt. The warrant was issued at the instance of a brother of the dead man. Paulson and Bartley, mine organizers, were also placed under arrest tonight.
Threaten Gov. Glasscock
      The state building and the residence of Gov. Glasscock are being guarded tonight. Threats against the life of the governor are being investigated, and form the basis for the precaution being taken.
Page 3
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Twelve Miners and Four Guards Lose Their Lives in Battle in West Virginia Mountains.
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      Charleston, W. Va., Feb. 10. -- Sixteen persons are dead and a score wounded as the result of a fight today between strikers and authorities near Mucklow, W. Va., in the Kanawha, coal strike district. Twelve of the dead are miners and four guards. Of the injured fifteen are said to be strikers and the others guards.
      The guards killed were William Radcliffe, James Vance, James Hendrix and Bernard Crockett. Fred Bobbett, bookkeeper for the Paint Creek collieries company, reported killed today, still is alive tonight, but has little chance for recovery. Another of the wounded is Lieut. P. L. Taylor, of the national guard, who had been investigating conditions in the strike district. Eight strikers were captured and brought here tonight charged with rioting.
Six Companies to Scene
      Of the five companies of state militia ordered to the strike district, by Gov. Glasscock early tonight, two from this city reached their destination about 9 o'clock. The three companies from Huntington are expected before midnight. Tonight a sixth company was ordered to proceed from Fayetteville for Mucklow. Only meager details of the battle today have reached the state authorities here. Exact conditions in the strike country tonight are not known, as communication is crippled as a result of cut telegraph and telephone wires.
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Urbana Courier-Herald, Urbana, Illinois
Volume 25 Number 59
Saturday Evening, February 15, 1913, Page 2
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Sixty-Nine Men Are Taken by Soldiers in Paint Creek District, West Virginia.
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      Charleston, W. Va., Feb. 14. -- A company of militia, commanded by Major Davis, surrounded the strikers' camp at Holley Grove on Paint creek and captured 69 men, every man in the camp. They were taken under heavy guard to Paint Creek Junction, where they will be tried for alleged participation in the disorders early this week, when a dozen or more, men were killed and many wounded. There are about 125 strikers and sympathizers at Paint Creek Junction awaiting trial by the military commission.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Saturday, March 8, 1913, Page 8
"Mother" Jones In Toils.
      Charleston. W. Va., March 8. -- "Mother" Jones, the aged labor leader and fifty other persons, charged before the military commission with conspiracy in connection with the rioting in the Paint Creek section of the Kanawha coal field, were placed on trial before the commission at Paint Creek Junction. Another charge is that they were concerned in the killing of Fred O. Bobbitt, a bookkeeper, a shot dead in the fighting at Mucklow. Two score or more witnesses have been summoned on each side and it is expected the trial will last several days.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 139
Wednesday, March 12, 1913, Page 32
      Paint Creek, W. Va., March 12. -- Upon the decision as to whether the strife between striking miners and militia was war, hinges the fate of Mother Jones, 80-year-old leader of the strikers, and forty-nine union leaders and miners charged with conspiracy to murder.
      If a man kills another for personal satisfaction -- that's murder, as by the civilized world.
      But if a man kills another in war -- is that murder?
      "Was the battle of Gettysburg murder?" asks Attorney F. M. Matheny, representing the miners.
      That is the defense of the men on trial -- it has been war, not murder, in West Virginia.
      Matheny points to three proclamations of martial law issued by Gov. Glasscock. In all of these the governor called the trouble "war."
      Never before in court procedure has this question, been raised. It will establish, a far-reaching precedent.
      "The violence was aimed against a system, and, not against individuals, said Matheny. "Mine guards were killed as the, representatives of a system. The system invited warfare by placing machine guns on the hills. It challenged the manhood of men by the conditions it created."
      Mother Jones' health has been broken by three weeks' confinement in a military prison. The aged woman, usually robust, is a shadow of her former self. "One of the men defendants is forced to support her when she climbs the steps leading to the courtroom.
      But she is still defiant toward the military court. Her spirit is dauntless. She refuses to recognize the right of the military court to try her.
      "The constitution of the United States guarantees the, rights of prisoners by declaring they cannot be placed on the stand by the prosecution to testify in a case, in which they are defendants," she said.
      "But the prosecution in this case, is, violating that right. Yesterday it called one of the defendants to the stand. No body of men in West Virginia, has the power to, suspend the constitution of the United States.
      "If the soldiers were to kill me it would call attention of the whole United States to conditions in West Virginia. It would, be worth while for that reason. But I shall not be executed."
      The military hearings are at a standstill, pending the hearing of charges filed against the commission by attorneys for the miners in the circuit court.
      If the strike of miners, in the Paint and Cabin creek districts is not settled by April 1 it is probable a general cessation of work will be, ordered by officials of the United Mine Workers' Union in every coal mining district of West Virginia.
      Vice President Hayes, now in Charleston, said the national officers had been given authority by the executive board to take whatever action was deemed necessary. He said the strike would not be one of, sympathy, but for definite demands, among them the abolition, of gunmen and mine guards, hired by the mine owners.
      An immediate strike of 10,000 miners in the New River district is probable, because of the discharge of union miners. They have been evicted from their homes on notices issued by a magistrate on stationery of a coal company.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 142
Saturday, March 15, 1913 Edition 02, Page 4
      Charleston, W. Va., March 15. -- Gov. Hatfield last night received the tidings of the military commission which has been trying Mother Jones and forty-nine miners for conspiracy to murder, in connection with the strike in the Paint Creek coal district.
      The verdicts will not be made public for a number of days, pending negotiations for a settlement of the strike. It is rumored that Mother Jones was acquitted.
      Three hundred miners in the New River district have quit work because of an increase in the size of coal cars they must fill.
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Urbana Courier-Herald, Urbana, Illinois
Volume 25 Number 89
Saturday, March 22, 1913, Page 8
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Governor of West Virginia Adjourns Military Court Trying 49 Prisoners for Murder.
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      Charleston, W. Va., March 21. -- Governor Hatfield adjourned the military court of the Paint Creek district, before which 49 prisoners, all members of the soft coal miners' unions, have been on trial, charged with conspiracy to murder, pardoned 18 of the prisoners and announced that he would free all the prisoners except John Brown and two others, who are accused of being most active in the disturbances. Among the prisoners is Mother Jones, a famous character of this section, who must agree to leave West Virginia.
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The Chicago Livestock World, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 14 Number 86
Monday, March 24, 1913, Page 6
      Final settlement of the questions at issue between the Paint Creek Collieries Company, and the miners who have been on strike at the company's West Virginia properties for about 10 months is awaiting the return from Panama of L. Connell, president of the company. Mr. Connell is expected home April 7.
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The True Republican, Sycamore, DeKalb County, Illinois
Volume 56 Number 15
Wednesday, March 26, 1913, Page 6
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Peace Past Reached Between Operators and Mine Workers.
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      Philadelphia, March 25. -- John P. White, international president of the United Mine Workers of America, announced here that a basis of settlement satisfactory to the miners has been reached with the representatives of the Paint Creek Collieries company, whose miners In West Virginia have been on strike for about ten months.
      There are nearly 10,000 men on strike in the West Virginia fields, and the expected settlement affects about 400 of them, according to Mr. White. The strike of the miners of the Cabin Creek Consolidated Coal Mining company continues.
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The Ashton Gazette, Ashton, Illinois
Volume 19, Number 8
Thursday, April 17, 1913, Page 2
      Full investigation of strike conditions in the Paint Creek coal fields in West Virginia by a committee of three senators was asked in a resolution presented by Senator Kern of Indiana in the senate in Washington. It was referred to a committee
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 184, Edition 02
Saturday, May 3, 1913 page 32
      Washington, May 3. -- The lobby of the West Virginia coal trust was hard at work today trying to postpone the probe into peonage in the Paint Creek and Cabin Creek coal fields of West Virginia.
      Senator Kern received today the report of a government agent to Secretary of Commerce and Labor Nagel, telling of the cruelties inflicted on striking miners and their families by the owners.
      Stories of an attack by mine guards on the aged Mother Jones, chief organizer of the unions, in the course of which one of the miners with Mother Jones was shot dead, have been told Kern.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 62 Number 169
Monday, May 5, 1913, Page 1
      Washington, D. C, May 5. -- After reading a statement by Governor Hatfield of West Virginia denying there was peonage and a reign of terror in the Paint Creek and Cabin Creek coal districts. Senator Kern said nevertheless he would demand a federal inquiry into coal field conditions.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Monday, May 5 1913, Page 4
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Senator Kern Sought by Those Interested In West Virginia Properties.
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Senator Kern       Washington, May 5. -- Powerful influence by mine owners and operators is being brought on senators to block the proposed senate investigation into conditions in the Paint Creek and Cabin Creek coal districts of West Virginia.
      Senator Kern of Indiana, author of the resolution authorizing the investigation was sought by those interested in suppressing the inquiry and representatives of New York financial interests having investments in the districts called him on the telephone and urged him to halt the investigation.
      Senator Kern said he has in his possession the reports of federal agents which were suppressed by officials of the department of commerce and labor. One of these agents told the senator of the alleged barbarous treatment undergone by the miners and their families.
      Evidence already at hand, the senator says, that strikers and their families have been thrown out of their homes and forced to live in tents and that miners were shot down indiscriminately, machine guns at times being used.
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The Chicago Livestock World, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 14 Number 130
Wednesday, May 14, 1913, Page 2
      Charges of peonage, "medieval feudalism" and oppression of workers in the Paint creek and Cabin creek fields of West Virginia, were laid before Senator Kern by representatives of the State Federation of Labor and miners' unions for use in support of his resolution for a congressional investigation of the situation.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 194
Thursday, May 15, 1913, Page 6
      Washington, May 15. -- "Mother" Mary Jones, angel to two million coal diggers in the United States and Canada, looked upon the fight over the West Virginia strike investigation from the public gallery of the Senate.
      She was dressed in a neat black dress and bonnet and her Irish blue eyes twinkled at the thought of the plea of the West Virginia coal mine owners, presented by Senator Goff.
      I know him," she said. "I was in his court twelve years ago with some of the boys who were on strike then. He was just the same then as you see him now." And then she added: "Unless something is done by Congress pretty quick there will be a revolt in this country. The pressure on the working people has gone a long way too far."
      "Mother" Jones has been calling upon the senators at their offices to plead for her "boys" In the troubled district She has met many of the senators in their home states, where her fiery denunciations of the "blood suckers" her description of mine owners have been combined with political advice of a radical nature.
      Independent as though she had not spent her eighty-first birthday in jail, "Mother" Jones walked up and down the steep steps to the Capitol and in and out of the gallery and office building.
      "Billy" Wilson, secretary of labor in President Wilson's cabinet met her at a street corner. She smiled proudly up at him, remembering that a few years ago he planned for her her expeditions into Colorado and Utah" and the strike zones in Pennsylvania. She remembered also that "Billy" once walked fifty miles to organize a camp of miners and he had ten cents' worth of crackers for lunch on the way.
      Prospects of the adoption of the Kern resolution appeared highly today. Only Senator Goff had signified determined opposition to it when the debate was "resumed at 2 o'clock.
      W. R. Fairley, special agent of the Mine Workers' Union, described conditions in the West Virginia mining section as being worse than in Siberia.
      "The bane of the state, aside from the terrible brutality of the mine owners and guards, is the sub-contract system permitting men to hire fifteen or twenty laborers at a starvation wage. The sub-contractor gets a certain price and swells his own profit by working the task system on the slaves under him.
      "Cases have come to my attention where guards have 'blackjacked' men for taking part in attempts to organize miners. And all the time the mine owners of West Virginia are growing rich by a low wage system that lets them do business at a cost of 21 cents a ton less than the United States average.
      "As to brutality, I saw a woman whose feet has been shot by the guards, and who will be a cripple for life. She was hidden behind her own door in a back room. Her husband, a miner in the Paint Creek district, had hidden himself in the cellar. Baldwin guards deliberately fired on the house. The bullets struck a bible and a table and finally wounded the woman. Her husband's offense was nothing. Her's was -- the Lord knows what.
      "I know of still another case where the guards in the Paint Creek district were beating a husband to death when the wife interfered. They turned on her. She was in a delicate condition. When her child was born, it was dead."
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 195
Friday, May 16, 1913, Page 6
Mother Jones       Washington, May 16. -- Waiting for the Senate to take action on the Kern resolution for a federal investigation of alleged violation of the law by mine owners and atrocities in the Paint and Cabin creeks coal districts of West Virginia, Mother Jones, the aged woman leader of the miners who were on strike for a year, further revealed conditions at which the probe is aimed.
      "The miners and their families have been subjected to inhuman treatment that is a disgrace to any civilization and inconceivable in a Christian country," said the "angel of the miners."
      She told of an attack made by Baldwin guards one night in 1904 upon the cabins on Stanford mountain, where a band of striking miners were asleep. With raising an alarm, the attacking party, she alleged, fired a volley into the cabins, killing seven and wounding 21.
      The miners had refused, a day or two before, to allow a deputy to arrest one of their number who had walked on the highway past a mine, in violation of an injunction.
      "None of that band of murderers was ever arrested," said Mother Jones. "When I was back there a week afterward I found the widow of one of those poor boys crying over his grave on the hillside. Her little child, 8 years old, was digging in the clay at the head of the mound, and calling, 'Papa, please come back.'
      "On Paint creek last summer a good girl, not 17 years old, was going on an errand of mercy when she was stopped on the railroad track by a mine guard. He swore at her and told her to get off the right of way. He made her wade into the creek with water up to her arms. He kept yelling, 'pull your clothes higher.'
      "Ninety per cent of these people are natives of the district. It is an American problem, with feudal greed and feudal savagery in control in West Virginia."
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock island, Illinois
Volume 62 Number 189
Wednesday, May 28, 1913, Page 12
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Inquiry to Take Up All Phases of the West Virginia Trouble
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      Washington, May 28. -- All phases of the coal strike in West Virginia will be investigated by order of the senate, which adopted, in a somewhat modified form, the Kern resolution after a month's consideration. A sub-committee probably will be selected. Senator Borah is expected to be its chairman, with Senators Shields, Swanson, Martine and Kenyon as members.
      This body is to take a trip to the coal fields and inquire into charges of peonage, the use of martial law, the importation of arms into the Paint Creek and Cabin Creek districts, any combinations among coal operators that might come under the Sherman law and all other details of the struggle.
      Senator Reed, in supporting the resolution, said of the supreme court of appeals of West Virginia, which upheld the governor and the military tribunal:
      "There never was written in the infamous reign of Charles II, a doctrine more destructive of human liberty and of all law than the doctrine we are now confronted with. It shocks the confidence and appalls the judgment of every man who loves his country."
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 205
Wednesday, May 28, 1913, Page 4
      Washington, May 28. -- Either three or five members of the United States senate will go to the Paint Creek coal fields in West Virginia this week to begin the investigation of oppression of the miners of that region, set forth in the Kern resolution.
      They will investigate whether peonage exists in the coal fields whether strikers have been prevented from free access to post offices, whether the immigration laws have been violated, and whether the district has been discriminated against.
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The Weekly Pantagraph, Bloomington, Illinois
Volume 67 Number 22
Friday Morning, May 30, 1913, Page 6
Will Investigate Strike.
      By the viva voce vote the senate today passed the resolution authorizing a sweeping investigation of conditions preceding and accompanying the strike of coal miners in the Paint Creek region in West Virginia. The resolution first introduced in somewhat different form by Senator Kern, has been before the senate for a month, the subject of many bitter attacks and of scores of speeches of commendation.
Many Charges Are Made
      Under the resolution's authority the senate, thru the education and labor committee, will look into charges of peonage in West Virginia; of violation of the immigration laws; of interference with the malls and post offices, and of violation of the constitution and laws of the United States in the trial of citizens by a military tribunal. It will examine reported combinations among operators in violation of the Sherman anti-trust act and alleged discrimination by immigration authorities at ports of entry, and determine whether arms and explosives were imported into Paint Creek for improper use.
But One Similar Case.
      The investigation will be the second in the history of the nation, so far as senators have shown in debate, to be made of the acts of a state by a legislative branch of the federal government. The strike in the Couer d'Alen mining region in Idaho was investigated by a house committee in 1900.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 216
Wednesday, June 11, 1913, Page 7
      Charleston, W. Va., June 11. -- Already there has been a snarl of anger against the five members of the Senate committee who are making a thorough investigation of the conditions in the coal mining districts of Paint Creek and Cabin Creek, as the story is being unraveled of how martial law was declared, how men, women and children were driven from their homes by the militia, and how a military tribunal, which was both judge and jury, was substituted for the civil court guaranteed by the constitution.
      The responsible military officials of the state, who have made and meted out their own laws and ideas of justice for more than a year, told their stories, and the undercurrent of bitter feeling was always present. That the state takes the position that it is on trial was shown when it was announced that it would defend the action of the military tribunal, which has been keeping the bullpens filled.
      Former Rep. J. H, Gaines, an impromptu witness, testified that at all times during the existence of the military courts there had been three civil courts in the county competent to pass upon all cases which, were disposed of by the military tribunals.
      The only witness examined last night -- J. Bruce Reid, a newspaper correspondent told the commission that a man named Prank Nance, who cursed a captain of the militia, who was arrested ten days after the offence was committed and after martial law had been declared, and was tried on the charge of interfering with an officer in the discharge of his duties, although at the time of the offence the civil authorities were in control. Nance was sentenced to seven years, but later turned loose by the governor.
      The provisions of the federal constitution applying to the State of Virginia at large show that there shall be no deprivation of liberty or property without due process of law; that the military processes shall be subordinate to the civil jurisdictions; that all persons accused of crimes shall be granted a right to trial by of twelve, and that all trials shall be in open court, subject to public scrutiny.
      A mass of evidence has been developed to show that every single provision of the constitution so enumerated was violated by the state officials. The military courts condemned men and women as they saw fit; prison sentences were meted out, and when recourse was had to the habeas corpus procedure the persons serving jail sentences were turned loose without any records being kept because the officials responsible had no defense to make.
      "Mother" Jones, 81 years old, will tell her story of exactly what happened to her during her arrest and court-martial when she defied the troops and insisted on making speeches to the striking miners. She is on hand personally directing the lawyers who are fighting the miners' battle.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock island, Illinois
Volume 62 Number 202
Thursday, June 12, 1913, Page 1
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      Charleston, W. Va., June 12. -- Five United States senators today started back into the West Virginia hills to view the "battlefields" of the coal strike at Paint Creek and Cabin Creek. A special train was provided and an itinerary arranged which included all the principal mines on both the Paint and Cabin Creek spurs of the Chesapeake & Ohio railroad.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Friday, June 13, 1913, Page 4
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Former Governor of West Virginia to Go on Stand.
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Miner Tells Legislative Committee About Battle of Mucklow Hill -- Fired on Town
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      Charleston, W. Ya., June 13. -- Down from sun-baked hills of West Virginia came 100 brawny coal miners to tell the senate mine investigating committee how their home country was transformed into a theater of civil war.
      They thronged the lobby of the hotel where the committee held its hearings awaiting the disposition by the committee of former Governor Glasscock, the star witness of the day.
      Governor Glasscock was chief executive of the state when the mine workers struck on Paint Creek and Cabin Creek, and issued the proclamations which placed the strike district under the dominion of the state militia
      Urged by their desire to cut as short as possible the hearings at Charleston, the committee members today planned to hear but a few of the small army of witnesses summoned and in attendance. The ruling of the committee that no witnesses should be compelled to answer questions tending to incriminate himself had the effect of eliminating much of the cross-examination of witnesses by the attorneys of the operators.
      This became quite apparent in the examination of John Seachrist, a young miner, summoned to testify as to interference with the postal service.
      Attorney Knight for the operators undertook to cross-examine him. Knight elicited that Seachrist had admitted that he was one of a party that attacked the village of Mucklow on Feb. 10 of this year.
      "How many were there?" he asked.
      "About100," said the witness.
      "Were they armed?"
      "How many shots were fired?"
      "Well, I reckon I just couldn't say."
      "Didn't you fire any shots?"
      "What with?"
      "With a gun."
      Attorney Knight wanted to know who told him to go to Mucklow Hill to attack the town, and where he got his ammunition for his gun. He said he just "happened along there" and that "most of his ammunition he bought in Montgomery."
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock island, Illinois
Volume 62 Number 204
Saturday, June 14, 1913, Page 1
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Deputy Able to Handle Paint Creek Until Their Arrival
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Worker Tells of Being Lined Up With Others Before Gatling Gun in South
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      Charleston, W. Va., June 14. -- Happy and contented people living wholesome lives among the hills of West Virginia, thrown into a reign of terror by an industrial strike, was described to the senate mine strike investigating committee today. Former Governor Glasscock and a group of men and women from the hills described conditions to the committee.
      The men and women told how detectives brought into the strike scene precipitated the troubles. Luther Hudnall was at Holly Grove during the strike. He was taken from his home by guards and taken to Mucklow.
      "During the day they stood me in front of a Gatling gun," he said, "and at night locked me in a boxcar."
      "Were you frightened" when in front of the Gatling gun?" asked Senator Kenyon.
      "I never thought I would get home no more," said the miner. Hudnall said the guards told him they wanted to "hold an inquest" over a dead man.
      "My wife begged them, not to take me," he said, "and they had taken hold of me. They had taken hold of my wife, too, because she hung on to em." He was shown the body of a dead man who he was told was Stringer, a mine guard, killed at Holly Grove. He took no part in the inquest and never was accused ot participating in the killing of Stringer.
      The witness named the group of men lined up with him before the Gatling gun and said that 22 men were locked up in a box car. There were no sanitary accommodations.
      Ed Bragg, a deputy sheriff, said that for nine years prior to the strike he was able to maintain law and order at Paint Creek single-handed. The trouble began, he said, when the mine guards were first brought in.
      Glasscock made it clear to the committee that he had made two attempts secure an agreement between miners and operators to arbitrate. In both cases the miners were willing, but the operators declined.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Saturday, June 14, 1913, Page 5
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Gov. Hatfield Removes All Semblance of It
- - Civil Authorities in Charge
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Senate Sub-Committee to Return to Washington.
-- Ex-Gov. Glasscock's Testimony to Close Field Investigation.
- - Fear Another Outbreak
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      Charleston, W. Va , June 14. -- Further investigation in the local field by the subcommittee of the United States senate committee on education and labor into the labor situation in the Paint Creek coal fields to be limited and the sub-committee will probably return to Washington tomorrow. Senator Borah will go this this evening. Aside from personal observations made in the field the investigation so far has been confined almost entirely to the trial of citizens by a military commission and alleged violations of the postal laws.
      The subcommittee has decided to take practically all of the testimony relative to alleged peonage, combination to control shipments of coal from this state and the shipment of firearms into the district after its return to Washington.
Ex-Gov. Glasscock a Witness
      Tho program as made up starts with the examination into the causes of the strike followed by the testimony of ex-Governor William E. Glasscock, who issued the three of martial law creating the military tribunals. The state will attempt. to show that the civil authorities declared themselves unable to handle the situation and that convictions in the criminal courts of offenses by strikers were impossible, that while the courts were open they were inoperative as to the strike situation. After Glasscock is examined no further witnesses will he called relative to martial law. Governor Hatfield is not expected to appear before the committee
State Troops Are Withdrawn
      The withdrawals of the five militiamen from the strike zone by Governor Hatfield removes all semblance of martial law and leaves the enforcement of law and order altogether in the hands of the civil authorities. Governor Hatfield's view is that martial law has not existed since the proclamation was issued the latter part of May, so modifying martial law as to restore the trial of offenders by the civil authorities. Since then the soldiers have been assisting the civil authorities.
Outbreak Danger Not Over.
      That all danger of further outbreaks in the Paint and Cabin Creek sections is not over is admitted by those in touch with the situation. Altogether there are between 300 and 400 miners who have not returned to work. Some of them have been refused work by the operators. Several meetings of miners have recently been held under cover to consider an attempt at a general strike and further meetings will be held next Sunday.
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The Saturday Blade, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 25, Number 52
Saturday, June 14, 1913, Page 1
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West Virginians Charge That Company Guards Caused Warfare
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Operators Say They Will Show Investigators They Are Conspiracy Victims
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Charges of Miners and Coal Companies

      The mine workers charge that in their greed for gain mine owners and operators have violated the peonage laws of the United States, have interfered with and obstructed the postal service and facilities, and have caused citizens of the United States to be arrested, tried and convicted in violation of the Constitution and laws of the United States.
      The mine operators charge that the immigration laws of the country have been violated in the coal fields, that the West Virginia fields have been discriminated against in the administration of immigration laws at ports of entry and that fire arms, ammunition and explosives have been shipped into the coal fields with the purpose of excluding the products of the fields from competitive markets. They charge a conspiracy to compel all miners in West Virginia to become members of the union.
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      CHARLESTON, W. Va., June 12. -- Strong protests against a continuance of the employment of the guards and detectives now on the payrolls of West Virginia coal companies have been made to the United States Senate committee which is making an investigation of conditions in the mining districts. The work of these guards -- known as "man hunters" -- is looming up as one of the chief causes of the warfare that began more than a year ago in the Cabin and Paint Creek districts and has not yet been completely ended.
      Resolutions adopted by the miners and statements of their leaders bitterly denounce the coal companies for putting these guards in the field, and throughout the coal districts it is asserted that peace will never be actually restored until the "man hunters" have left the State. This feeling is not confined to the Cabin and Paint Creek fields. As an instance, several hundred mountaineers met at Beckley, Raleigh County, and adopted sweeping resolutions. They denounced the coal operators for keeping a guard of detectives over the workers of the New River coal district. The preamble of the resolutions of the Raleigh County workers sums up the ills that the West Virginia laborers complain of. It follows:
      "Whereas. The miners of the New River field have been for many years ruthlessly deprived of their organization by a standing army of Baldwin-Feltz guards, many of whom have been common thugs, causing the miners, their wives, daughters and others to suffer many indignities and humiliations; and
      "Whereas, The coal companies employing such guards have oppressed their employes by long hours of hazardous labor and longer tons, with no check weighman or check measurer; and
      "Whereas, The atrocities of the companies and the guards combined have become so oppressive and obnoxious that the miners of the entire New River field unanimously, or nearly so, have risen in rebellion against such inhuman and un-American treatment and have banded themselves together in unity and formed an organization known as District No. 29, United Mine Workers of America, for their mutual protection and welfare; and
      "Whereas. The united efforts of the miners of the New River field to peacefully and legitimately build up their organization is being strenuously opposed by the New River coal companies, as strenuously assisted by their guards who have been for many years and still are a menace to the State; therefore be it
      "Resolved, That we, the commercial men and professional men and all the citizens of the city of Beckley, together with the farmers and the miners of Raleigh County here assembled, voice our sentiment in strong terms against a further continuance of the private army service in the State of West Virginia."
Operators Charge Conspiracy
      The United States Senators have learned that there are about 12,000 miners in the Cabin and Paint Creek districts. Less than 1,000 of these belong to the union, according to the operators. The operators have combated the efforts of the mine workers to organize and that is one of the real issues of the long-fought struggle. The operators say that they are going to convince the Senate committee that the strike trouble has been caused by a conspiracy to control the production, sale and transportation of the coal of their fields
      President John P. White and eighteen other officials of the United Mine Workers of America have been indicted in the Federal Court here on a charge of violating the Sherman anti-trust law, by a conspiracy for the purpose of compelling all miners in West Virginia to become members of the union, so that the miners in this State can be on competitive bases with the miners in Western Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois.
      Officials of the Department of Justice at Washington declare that they did not know the action was to be brought, although it is the custom to consult Washington before instituting such proceedings. The attorney general is to make an investigation to determine whether the case, especially in view of the Senate inquiry, is of sufficient gravity to justify prosecution. The indicted leaders deny that they have conspired in any way against the mine operators.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Tuesday, June 17, 1913, Page 8
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West Virginia Workmen Reported in New Strike.
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Men Accuse the Operators of Bad Faith in Refusing to Take Them Back to Work.
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      Charleston, W. Va., June 17. -- With industrial war again declared In West Virginia the senate coal strike investigating committee confronted a nation, critical and complicated. Word from sections of Paint Creek and Cabin creek that the strike was again on drifted into Charleston from half a dozen sources, and representatives of mine operators, miners and state officials sought in vain for definite word from the little camps along the creeks.
      The union attorneys, appearing before the committee, said that they were certain the men had declined to go back to work after meetings held Sunday, but they were unable to make any estimate of the number of men who struck. There were comparatively few union men in the field, they said, but they believed both union and nonunion men decided to quit.
      With the New River district, a few miles away from the creeks, awaiting only the match to set off a conflagration of excitement, the state officials watched the situation with fear. For days the New River miners, numbering 15,000, has threatened trouble and is was feared the new outbreak on Paint and Cabin creeks would appreciate the struggle.
      The miners' meeting at Eskdale and Kayford, according to reports reaching Charleston, voted to renew the strike on the ground that the operators had not lived up to their agreement to take the strikers back to work without discriminating. This claim and the story that mine guards had "beaten up" four men on Cabin creek on Saturday caused the decision.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 221
Tuesday, June 17, 1913, Page 12 - 15 & 31
Miner's Home in Strike Center
By Staff Photographer W. H. Durborough.
This photograph shows Mr. and Mrs. Pike and child living in one of the
tents of a camp on Paint Creek, a strike center. Only a roughly-laid wooden
floor keeps these three persons from the damp ground.
By Mary Boyle O'Reilly.

      Charleston, W. Va., June 17. -- The laws of war among all civilized nations and most savage tribes prescribe the removal of all women and children from the peril of the firing line.
      For a year West Virginia has been in a state of war, the war of the twentieth century struggle of workers and organized capital.
      The U. S. Senate sub-committee on labor, now hearing testimony concerning the Paint Creek coal mine war, sits in a long, low banquet room in the Kanawha Hotel here. Pale blue walls without, decoration, cheap deal tables for the committee and the various counsel, indicate the grim business-like atmospage of the place.
      The room is crowded to suffocation with blue-shirted miners, standing, for once, shoulder to shoulder, with burly railway detectives and rat-faced mine guards whose hunched-up coats indicate the holsters holding loaded arms.
      About the tables on either side gather the opposing counsel the sleek, tame solicitors of great coal corporations summery in pale gray and fawn-colored clothes; the half-dozen alert, coatless young lawyers of the United Mine Workers of America whose team-work under their chief, Judge Monnett, former attorney general of Ohio, is the one bright spot in the proceedings.
      And at the committee table, facing the room, sit the three senators -- Martine, the living portrait of a cavalier, whose tongue is a rapier; Swanson, the senator long on corporation concern, but short on human sympathy, and Kenyon of Iowa, on whose calm judgment the troubled citizens of Kanawha county instinctively have their hope.
* * *
      The packed hearing room was insufferably hot. Long, familiar evidence dragged. A witness testifying of outrages perpetrated on unoffending strikers by the coal corporations mine-guards used the word, "Thugs." A florid "company counsel" protested. A junior among the miners' lawyers seemed to acquiesce. Then --
"Mrs. Parker," he called.
"Mrs. Estep -- Mrs. Seville."
      They came at once three miners' wives, typical women of the coal valleys, and tidy and self-respecting, in heavy, long-sleeved shirtwaist belted with pleated alpaca skirts.
      There was indescribable pathos in their work-worn, ungloved hands, their simple, home-trimmed hats.
      Senator Martine leaned forward.
      "Madam, you swear to speak the truth, the whole truth, nothing but the truth?"
      "Indeed, I do, sir" -- and Mrs. Georgia Parker took the witness chair.
      "I am the wife of C. C. Parker of Lamont, on Cabin Creek," she said, diffidently. "My husband is a miner, We have -- I mean 'had' -- a baby. It died.
      "On February 21st, at noon, a neighbor, Mrs. Nance, and my sister Hattie Workman, started with me to Red Warrior cemetery. I wanted to fix my baby's grave. At Lunwood mine Guard Jackson stopped us, throwing up his gun and twisting Mrs. Nance around. We told him about my baby's grave, but -- but -- it made no difference."
      Quietly the witness stepped aside. An omnious mutter voiced the comment of the audience.
      "Mrs. Estep --" An instant and she "was there, the wife no, the widow -- of Francesco Estep, an unarmed striker shot from the C. & O. armored train at Holley Grove.
      "My name is Maud Estep. My husband, Francesco Estep, a miner, was killed on the night of February 7th, between 10 and 11 o'clock.
      "We lived on Paint Creek near the swinging bridge. That night we were "talking and laughing in the house when Frank heard the armed train coming. There were no lights in the train, but the Gatling guns it carried sent out sheets of fire. Mine guards, under a man named Lentz, worked those guns.
      "My Frank called us all to get into the cellar. I carried my year-old baby and another unborn. My husband stood at the bulkhead, warning me not to fall. A shot from the train killed him.
      "I saw no shooting from the town. That night I took my baby and went away. I never went back."
      A sound like a groan swept the listening audience.
      Alone, in her pathetic mourning, the widow stepped aside and went back to her loneliness.
      "Mrs. Seville, Mrs. Seville.
      A worn and worried woman sank nervously into the witness chair.
      "Sirs, my name is Gianiana Seville, wife of Tony Seville, a miner," she spoke up. "We have four children. I expected a baby in four months. Our house was company property at Banner Hollow in Paint Creek. We left because we were afraid mine guards would kill us after what happened." The whispering voice sank into silence.
      Senator Martine, tense with indignation and pity, silently pounded the table with his fist.
      Senator Kenyon, standing with hands clenched on his chair back, leaned forward gravely. All that a man feels for women in pain sounded in his quiet voice.
      "Mrs. Seville, were you ever mistreated by mine guards'" he asked. The tense face responded to unspoken sympathy.
      "Yes, sir -- I mean Senator," said Mrs. Seville, humbly. "On the 10th day of January I got up out of bed to hear some shooting. I saw the mine guards coming down the hill. Those mine guards were going into neighbors' houses. They began to pick the men they could find. They had Winchester rifles. Then they came into our house and looked under the bed. My baby was asleep on the bed. I told the guards to let my baby alone.
      "Then they struck me. I fell down and they hit me with their fists and kicked me. Tony cried out what shape I was in, but a mine guard hit Tony with the butt of his gun. There were twenty-nine guards. Only two hit me. I do not know why. We had done nothing. After that I was sick all the time until August. When my baby was born it was dead."
      No sound broke the silence. The innermost circle of capital in anarchy had been reached. As if dazed, Mrs. Gianiana Seville rose from the witness chair. Instantly a path opened for her through the awed throng. Watched by two hundred grim-faced strikers, she passed out of the room, the bereft mother of a baby victim who found life too cruel in a capital-throttled state and so slipped silently away.
      In the name of the law!

A Message Written by Senator Martine of New Jersey to Miss O'Reilly While the Hearing Was in Progress.
Message to Miss O'Reilly
Page 31
      Charleston, W. Va., June 17. -- Today's session of the senate investigating committee was marred by a sensational verbal controversy between Senator James E. Martine, of New Jersey, and Gen. C. C. Watts, counsel for the West Virginia operators.
      Martine was questioning Dr. W. J. Ashby, a Cabin Creek physician, regarding sanitary conditions in that section and had developed from him that there was no method for the disposal of sewerage in the entire district. Martine was pressing the question when Watts suddenly jumped to his feet.
      "l demand that you cease your browbeating and bullying of witnesses," he yelled. "The fact that you are a United States senator does not give you the right to be a czar."
      "It is your duty to provide sanitary methods which will protect the lives of these workers," Martine shouted, his face aflame, "and I am asking this educated physician whether he considers the present sanitary methods the best possible."
      Watts was as angry as Martine, and shouted: "This state knows how to take care of her own people, and anyhow West Virginia does not have to go to the mosquito laden swamps of New Jersey to learn a lesson in sanitation."
      This is probably the first time in the history of the United States Senate where a member of that body has been verbally attacked during a hearing, and it added to the bitter feeling between the coal operators attorney and Senator Martine.
      Quinn Morton, the millionaire mine owner and operator who was alleged by Lee Calvin, a miner witness, to have not only participated in the "shooting up" of Holly Grove, but to have ordered that the train be backed up that they might "give them another round," was a witness this morning.
      He frankly admitted that he had been on the train that "shot up" Holly Grove, but he declared that the miners started the shooting and they answered it.
      Morton's testimony developed the fact that the Paint Creek Coal and Land Company, which is dominated by Charles Pratt, of New York, one of the big Standard Oil magnates, absolutely owns nearly all of the coal lands on Paint Creek.
      The operators are laughing at the threats of another strike and declare that nearly all of the men now at work are non-union men who are satisfied with conditions.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 224
Friday, June 20, 1913, Page 13
senator Martine Senator Martine of New Jersey, the man whose indignation at the "findings" regarding conditions in "The Kingdom of West Virginia" has resulted in several outbursts in which he has called "a spade a spade" and sometimes more.
By Mary Boyle O'Reilly.

      Charleston, W. Va., June 20. -- The coal barons of West Virginia have come into the open.
      Their policy has been recorded in court as immovable and relentless opposition to, and brutal disregard of, the human beings who produce their wealth.
      These coal companies of the war zone constitute a giant corporation with a capitalization of millions. Many of the lands they lease and operate are owned by Standard Oil. Already in the senate commission hearing the United Mine Workers of America having apparently shown that union workers were blacklisted, that unoffending men and women were systematically assaulted by armed mine guards, that scores of white men were kidnapped and held in peonage, rested their case so much for the sworn record.
      These astounding facts will be expounded in the days to come by my following articles.
      THIS is the story of the single combat which has epitomized the conflict of armed capital and struggling labor in West Virginia coal fields!
* * *
      The coal corporations, indicted by public opinion, opened their case this first day before the senate committee by calling to the witness stand Quinn Morton, a millionaire operator, president of the Paint Creek combine.
      Mine barons claim Morton as a representative coal capitalist.
      Mine workers concede Morton to be a typical West Virginia philanthropist.
      It is of record that Quinn Morton was aboard the dreadful death special, a steel armored train loaded with rifles and a machine gun, which swept the ravine of Paint Creek in the dead of night of Feb. 7 with a death-dealing rain of fire and shot swept a valley crowded with women and children asleep in their tents.
      The pitiful story told and retold before the senate committee invariably causes awed silence. The testimony is in the record that Millionaire Quinn Morton frantically demanded that the train back up and sweep the valley again.
      Senator Kenyon's manner acquired new gravity, Senator Martine's fighting face grew threatening.
      "I want to ask you, Mr. Morton," he demanded, "whether you believe that it is a civilized method of industrial agitation to use Gatling guns and man-killing Winchester rifles against sleeping women and children."
      No answer.
      Not a miner stirred.
      Counsel for the capitalists looked helplessly at one another.
      "I ask you, Mr. Morton" -- the commanding voice was rising. Again no answer.
      Senator 'Kenyon, able and far-seeing, attempted to control the coming storm.
      "Mr. Morton, did you ever consider the necessity of arbitration, if only for humanitarian motives?"
      The coal baron's answer was curt: "Never, sir."
      "Mr. Morton" -- even Senator Kenyon's tone arraigned the witness -- "can you suggest any kind of legislation which would lead to the betterment of conditions among mine workers? " Arm flung carelessly over chair-back, Morton appeared frankly contemptuous.
      "I have never thought of it from that standpoint at all," he said.
      The brutal frankness brought Senator Martine to his feet, bushy brows and gray mustache bristling with honest wrath.
      "Mr. Witness, you represent half the coal operators in the field of a year-long mine war. I repeat Senator Kenyon's question."
      Still no answer!
      Not a capitalist raised his head!
      Every miner present looked at a brother worker with comradely understanding.
      For, in the silence, the status of the great mine war turned clean round.
      Miners, long accused, suddenly became accusers.
      Capital, armed and lawless, stood on the defense.
      Senator Martine, standing behind the committee table, leaned forward heavily, as if accepting the burden of pleader for a people.
      "Mr. Morton" -- the vibrant voice was prophetic -- "I can stand your silence and the public can stand your silence far better than YOU or YOUR COAL CORPORATIONS can stand such silence, so I say to you, as a member of this United States senate sub-committee on labor, but, speaking man to man, I wish to add, sir, that you are a blackguard of the meanest kind and that you have forfeited all your rights a a decent white man. When I remember those helpless women and children alone in the night -- unprotected in their poor tents and your death special sweeping down on them -- God in heaven, can such things be?"

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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 225
Saturday, June 21, 1913 Pages 1 - 6
Mary O'Reilly and Lee Calvin Lee Calvin Telling Mary Boyle O'Reilly What Happened While He Rode on the "Death Special. "
      Lee Calvin, Who Gave Valuable Testimony to Senatorial Committee, Tells Mary Boyle O'Reilly How Gatling Guns Shelled Sleeping Women and Children.
      (The facts stated here by Mr. Lee Calvin to Miss O'Reilly in West Virginia will appear in the sworn testimony given before the senatorial committee which investigated mine conditions in West Virginia.)
By Mary Boyle O'Reilly.

      "Did labor agitators bring on the great West Virginia mine war?
      "They did NOT!
      "Any truthful man in West Virginia must tell you that union organizers could no more cause this strike than they could create a cyclone.
      "Conditions did it.
      "Conditions being what they were, the crash was BOUND to come.
      "I saw it come when the coal companies' Gatling guns shelled sleeping women and children in Holly Grove village on Paint Creek. Great God! That was awful!"
* * * * * *
      Lee Calvin, red-haired, bullet-head-ed and Irish, stated his opinion to me gravely. He had just risen from the cross-examination during which he put six corporation lawyers on the run.
      "Do not interrupt," Senator Kenyon had admonished the miners' counsel, "this witness can take care of himself!"
      "Small credit," commented Lee Calvin, in his smileless way, "me being a graduate of the college of hard knocks! If the senators knew it all, I was the least interested man at their mine war investigation. I am not for the United. Mine Workers. I am not for the coal operators. Only for justice.
      "The coal companies, being rich, can publish pages of slander. I want nothing but the truth. That's "why I testified that and one other reason.
      "Senator Borah and I were friends long ago in Boise, Idaho, If my testimony helped his committee, I'm not sorry.
      "But, it's about the coal companies' steel armored 'death special' that I want to tell you, Miss O'Reilly. Because that's what 'brought on this war -- mainly."
      Lee Calvin adjusted his stalwart body to prolonged inactivity -- 245 pounds of bone and sinew.
      "It was the worst thing that ever happened in any strike anywhere the shooting up of SLEEPING women and children from a fortified car, wasn't it?
      "And who did it? That's the question,
      "Well, I was on that train and I know!
      "About Feb. 1st I was working on Paint Creek as chief guard of a colliery. The strike had quieted down and Supt. Hale of Mucklow mine told Capt. Levi of the Baldwin-Feltz mine guards that we must reduce his 25 gunmen to 10 -- five night men and five day men -- a saving of $500 a week.
      "The night shift saw their chance and they took it. On Feb. 7 at 5 a. m. before it was daylight the night shift climbed the hills above Mucklow and shot up the miners' shacks. The day guards, just getting up, ran out to attack and found their friends.
      "But a fight with striking miners sounded fine and saved their, jobs. There you have the 'battle of Mucklow!'
      "Capt. Levi, in charge of B. & F. mine guards at Mucklow, telephoned the sheriff to come up and arrest the shooters.
      "Sheriff Bonner Hill was just sworn in and knew next to nothing of his duties.
      "R. B. Paine, assistant chief of the Baldwin-Feltz men working as Chesapeake & Ohio railroad detectives, knew the sheriff was inexperienced. So Paine sent word to Holly Grove that the sheriff was coming up to make wholesale arrests. Then we called out the C & O. armored train.
      "Yes, I know we are going slow, but sending that death special up Paint Creek was the crime of crimes in the mine war. It proved who is perhaps guilty of other things.
      "Sheriff Hill picked up 10 deputies in Charleston, but he paid neither for the train nor the arms and ammunition put on board. Calling it 'the sheriff's train' was only a blind.
      "When Holly Grove heard the sheriff was coming, the miners flitted into the hills,
      "That left the women and children alone in their strikers' tents.
      "Remember, it was in February, early dark and bitter cold. About 9 p. m. the 'Death Special' pulled out of Charleston. In the steel armored car behind the engine was a machine gun and a dozen B. & F. mine guards acting as Chesapeake & Ohio detectives.
      "Five of those men had done time for murder, burglary or worse. Five were ex-policemen discharged for drunkenness. The crowd looked at home in an armored car.
      "The sheriff and his 10 deputies were put in care of the special. With us was Quinn Morton of Burnwell, millionaire mine owner, and his general manager, M. M. McClanahan.
      "I could not understand how they came to be there until later.
      "Sheriff Hill and his deputies sat quiet, talking and joking -- expecting no trouble. But when the train passed the junction and headed up the creek the detectives pulled out boxes of rifles and began loading a gun for each. Quinn Morton had secured two boxes of 30-30's -- Winchesters -- man-killers -- from the state capital.
      "These guns belonged to the Consolidated Coal Company, but had been confiscated by the militia at the first declaration of martial law.
      "Why did the governor give them back to a fighting coal corporation?
      "Don't ask me.
      "That is West Virginia.
      "Phil Walker, a railroad detective, offered me a rifle, .
      "I refused.
      " 'You were often up the Creek before and never got hurt. Why do you expect to shot into tonight?' I asked him.
      " 'Because the strikers have found the sheriff is coming. Get hold of this gun,' says Phil.
      " 'Then why didn't the sheriff say there shooting on the program?' I says, and refused the Winchester.
      "With that we came near Holly Grove. Someone turned out the car lights. The engineer gave two short whistles.
      "Being an old railroad man I knew it for a signal.
      "And before you could think the machine gun in the armored car opened a continuous stream of fire on the strikers' tents near the track.
      "George A. Lentz, chief detective of the C. & O. detectives, worked the gun. "It was near 11 at night, dark and cold, a frosty night. The miners, almost to a man, had slipped into the hills. But the moans, of women and children were heart-rending.
      "Esco Estop was shot dead.
      "Mrs. Hall's leg was shot off.
      "Two women gave premature birth to dead children.
      "Almost at once the town of tents took fire.
      "That was near midnight of Feb. 7. Women and children shrieked all night. God only knows what they thought had come upon them in their sleep!
      "But Quinn Morton, general manager for the Imperial Colliery Co., to whom all these people must look to live, came running down the car from the rear -- cheering -- CHEERING!
      " 'Sheriff Hill,' he cried, let us stop the train, turn on the lights, reload and back up to give them another dose. I guess that will end the strike on Paint Creek.'
      "But the sheriff refused.
      " 'There are no men there,' he said. 'I saw only women and children.'
      "'Sheriff,' I told Hill, 'you have been tricked by men who carried you here to cover a crime.'
      " 'I know it,' said the sheriff, 'I see it -- now.'
      "And I believe," added Mr. Calvin, solemnly, "that the sheriff of Kanawha county was absolutely innocent of the plot which sent that train of destruction to sweep misery and death through Paint Creek. Every man aboard the 'Death Special' was a deputy sheriff, a Baldwin-Feltz detective on the C. & O. or B. & F. mine guard. Excepting two. One of those two was the man who brought the rifles and ammunition, Quinn Morton, aged 68 or so, acting representative of all the Paint Creek coal companies. The other was Morton's general manager.
      "That is why I came to tell Senator Borah what I know about the mine war."
      Charleston, W. Va., June 21.

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The True Republican, Sycamore, DeKalb County, Illinois
Volume 56 Number 57
Saturday, June 21, 1913, Page 6
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Roosevelt Conciliation Commissioner Testifies in Mine Quiz
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      Charleston, W. Va., June 20. -- The strong tide of testimony as to the peaceful and prosperous conditions that ruled in the coal fields before the late strike paralyzed industry and brought war and bitter enmity in its train, was continued
      Besides Quinn Morton, the most important witness for the operators was W. L. Connell, of Scranton, Pa. During the anthracite strike of 1902 he was on President Roosevelt's conciliation commission. Mr. Connell said he was not opposed to unions rightly conducted, but he was persuaded that their policy towards District Union No. 17 of West Virginia was incorrect. Mr. Connell then related his experiences of the union since his company purchased the Paint Creek Collieries company two years ago, the concern was insolvent then and handicapped by a sale contract that made the advance demanded by the union impossible.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 226
Monday, June 23, 1913, Pages 6 - 7
By Mary Boyle O'Reilly.

      Charleston, W. Va., June 23. -- The case of the United States government against the reign of King Coal in West Virginia has been carried to Washington.
      The million words of evidence taken before the senate investigators at Charleston prove one fundamental fact. A West Virginia capitalist's ideal government is not republican freedom, but a so-called beneficient feudalism. Let us sum up the evidence as I heard it.
      The United Mine Workers of America, 400,000 strong, contend that Kanawha county coal barons hold their employes as serfs and deny them the constitutional rights of free speech, free association and free assemblage.
      The coal companies are consolidated in a giant combine.
      That policy is justified. Kanawha coal fields find their market in New York, Chicago and Boston only through competing with mines in Ohio, Pennsylvania and Illinois. They are handicapped by a longer haul, and coal owners in neighboring states making it still harder by covertly encouraging the West Virginia strike. Obvidusly the Paint Creek coal companies must consolidate to prosper. But, organized themselves, they denied their miners the right of organization.
      Paint and Cabin creeks are lonely ravines in the West Virginia hills. One railroad, whose interests are identified with the collieries, connects this wilderness with civilization. For 23 miles the land is corporation property.
      The vigorous population is all American, bred to arms and fearless of conflict.
      During the strike of 1902 scores of blacklisted strikers came to the recently opened Creek mines. Four years later a long shut-out on Cabin Creek drove other scores of union men across the intervening mountains.
      The tradition of Paint Creek is for union labor. It is as natural for a Paint Creek miner to agitate as for an Irishman to fight.
      Intelligent, independent and courageous, they know their rights as men and citizens.
      Coal barons have consistently plotted to undermine those rights. So much has been proven by the senate investigators.
      Consider these facts:
      Miners must live in company houses, there being none other to lease, nor land to buy. Vegetable gardens are rare. Some well-known operators deny space for garden because it would "reduce the sale of vegetables at the company store."
      Peddlers are not allowed on corporation land. The company's store is the only store -- its prices always 20 per cent in excess of independent shops.
      Blasting powder, dinner buckets and track hatchets are 100 per cent higher than outside the district.
      Installment contracts are known as leases and the mine owner stands to lose his household property if he moves away before the last dollar is paid.
      Between monthly pay days miners borrow on their work, buying script at the company office. A man needing five dollars draws script for ten and sells it to an outside merchant for six dollars to raise ready cash. The merchant takes his chance of having his purchase redeemed by the company for seven dollars.
      So the corporation and merchant profit by the miner's loss. This system is notorious and shameless.
      So much for imposing on the miner as a man. Now consider his wrongs as a citizen. In the Paint and Cabin Creek district tens of thousands of acres are company property. Sixty-five per cent of the school houses are owned by coal corporations.
      Years ago public donation built Mucklow church. Above it is Redmen's Hall, a public forum. When this strike came the superintendent of the Paint Creek Consolidated Coal Co. denied miners their right of free assembly, declaring that although they owned the hall, the company owned the church ground beneath.
      Nor would the corporation allow strikers to meet in the school, claiming that it stood on corporation land distant from county roads and without right of way.
      Free speech and free press are interlocking. The coal corporations prohibit the sale of the Cincinnati POST on Paint Creek. Newsboys may sell only capitalist papers.
      A system of election is a test of Republican principal?. In the zone of the mine war elections are held in company buildings, the election officers being invariably corporation clerks.
      Last election there was a lack of clerks consequent on the strike. The shut down allowed the miners to force in two election officers. But when 30 registered voters marched from Holly Grove they found the polls barred from them by ten armed mine guards. The protest of a deputy sheriff was necessary to relieve strikers of necessity of voting under a gun.
      Before that election local justices were company men. One such presiding in a mine case set aside a jury verdict three times to secure judgment for the corporation.
      Everything in the mine valleys is appraised and safeguarded except the lives, liberty and happiness of the miners. Americans for generations -- some of revolutionary stock -- they are worse off than their ancestors under the British!
      'Whatever the case of the coal corporations may prove against the strikers; this much is clear:
      The Paint and Cabin Creek miners are fighting for political freedom!

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Urbana Courier-Herald, Urbana, Illinois
Volume 25 Number 172
Friday Evening, June 27, 1913, Page 6
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Agitators Blamed for Walkout by United Mine Workers
-- No Disorder Reported.
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      Charleston, W. Va., June 27. -- Reports from Cabin Creek announce that about a thousand miners are on strike. No disorder has been reported.
      Runners sent out by officials of the United Mine Workers, after it was learned that strike agitators were attempting to call a strike, were unable to turn the tide and a majority of the miners at Acme and, Kayford, two of the largest mines of the Cabin Creek Consolidated Coal company, refused to return.
      The strike has not extended to Paint Creek. At the request of the New River operators Governor Hatfield is holding conferences with officials of the Mine Workers' union relative to the situation in that field.
      A call for a general strike in the New River field was sent out, to be effective July 1. The operators ask that such action be postponed for a few days in the hope that a settlement may be reached
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The Weekly Pantagraph, Bloomington, Illinois
Volume 67, Number 26
Friday Morning, June 27, 1913, Page 10
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Arguments on Demurer Will Not be Made Until November
-- One Thousand Quit Work
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      Charleston, W. Va., June 26. -- By agreement of counsel arguments on the demurrer to the indictment in the federal court charging violation of the Sherman anti-trust law against John P. White, president of the United Mine Workers of America and eighteen other miners' officials, have been postponed from June 30 to the November term of court.
About 1,000 Minors Strike.
      A strike of about 1,000 miners is reported today from Cabin Creek. No disorders have been reported and the men who refused to go to work are not being molested. A majority of the men at Acme and Keyford, two of the largest mines of the Cabin Creek Consolidated Coal Company are out. The strike has not extended to Paint Creek. At the request of the New River operators, Gov. Hatfield held conferences today with officials of the Mine Workers' Union relative to the situation in that field.
      A call for a general strike in the New River field went out last night, to be effective July 1. The operators ask that such action be postponed for a few days in the hope that a settlement may be reached.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 234
Wednesday, July 2, 1913, Page 28
      Charleston, W. Va. -- Less than 20 per cent of miners working in Cabin and Paint Creek districts. Rest on strike.
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St. Anne Record, St. Anne, Illinois
Volume 24, Number 8
Friday, July 4, 1913, Page 3
More West Virginia Miners Strike
      Charleston, W. Va., July 1. -- The coal strike in the Kanawha field was extended from the Cabin Creek to the Paint Creek district when approximately 500 miners left the vicinity of Mucklow.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Tuesday, July 8, 1913, Page 1
      Charleston, W. Va., July 8. -- (Late Atlas Telegram.) Rioting was resumed in the Cabin Creek and Paint Creek districts, the striking miners, entrenched on hillside, having fired 5,000 shots into the Cabin Creek camp. The situation is grave.
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The Monmouth Daily Atlas, Monmouth, Illinois
Wednesday, July 9, 1913, page 9
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Strikers Open Fire From Hillside on Mining Camp of Cabin Creek
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      Charleston, W. Va., July 9. -- Rioting such as has made life and property in the Cabin and Paint Creek coal fields unsafe for more than a year past broke out anew here where strikers numbering about 150 hidden in the thickly wooded hillside opened fire with rifles upon the miring camp of the Cabin Creek Consolidated Coal company at Ohley, on Cabin Creek. The firing started about 6 o'clock, when some of the miners who refused to obey the strike call were leaving the mine. Two miners whose names were not given out are reported missing by Supt. Harry Davis. Sheriff Homier Hill was notified of the shooting and he held a hurried conference with Governor Hatfield. The sheriff was advised to consult with Judge Henry K. Black of the intermediate court and Judge Samuel D. Littlepage of the Kanawha circuit court, since it is the duty of those officers under the law to to handle the situation before calling on the governor for assistance.
5,000 Shots Fired From Hills
      It is estimated that nearly 5,000 shots were fired from the hillside. Many of the bullets were directed at the power plant and it is especially damaged.
      The Ohley mining camp is at the mercy of the rioters, as the company has but half a dozen watchmen in reach. Sheriff Hill is expected to send a posse to their relief soon.
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The Weekly Pantagraph, Bloomington, Illinois
Volume 67, Number 29
Friday Morning, July 18, 1913, Page 3
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Paint Creek, W. Va., Collieries Co. Signs Agreement With United Mine Workers of America
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      Charleston, W. Va., July 15. -- The Paint Creek Collieries company, operating nine mines on Paint Creek, signed the agreement of the United Mine Workers of America today and the miners' strike on that creek is expected to be called off at once. A strike is still In force on Cabin Creek which adjoins.
      For the first time since the strike occupied in the West Virginia coal field over sixteen months ago, the action of the Paint Creek Collieries Co., today constituted the first break of the coal operators.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 2, Number 262
Tuesday, August 5, 1913, Page 32
      Charlestown, W. Va. -- Miners on Cabin Creek and Coal River practically all at work today. On Paint Creek there is a scarcity of miners, but with exception of Kingston and Keeferton, all in Kanawha Valley are now under union working agreement and union miners in demand.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 62 Number 276
Thursday, September 4, 1913, Page 1
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Conditions in West Virginia Described at Senate Inquiry
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Guard, Left for Dead, Tells of Miners Using Pieces of Coat as Souvenirs.
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      Washington, D. C, Sept. 4. -- More lawlessness and disorder exists today along Paint creek. West Virginia, than in any other period of its history, according to today's testimony of Walter S. Woods, general manager of a coal company there, before the senate committee.
      "The more radical ones are stirring trouble with those who remained at work," he declared. "There is no guard or special officer of any kind to represent the law, except one justice of the peace," said Woods, "and he was one of the leaders in the strike and a socialist."
      Senator Kenyon inquired if the trouble as not largely due to drink.
      "They were more radical after the bottles were open," suggested Seymour Stedman, attorney for the United Mine Workers.
      Battle between strikers and "guards" were described by W. W. Phaup, in charge of guards. The climax of his story was an account of being left for dead after an encounter July 25, 1912. His coat, he said, pierced by bullet holes, was cut up at a miners' meeting and the pieces worn on coat lapels as souvenirs. He told of being shot off a hand-car at Holly drove and his companions being killed. As he revived it he said he heard one of the strikers say: "Don't shoot any more. That's got him." Phaup dragged himself to a hospital two miles away with an arm broken by a bullet, another in hi shoulder blade, and a third in his chest. "I lost my coat on the way to the hospital, and next Sunday, when Mother Jones made a speech to the miners, she exhibited it and said it was decorated to suit her. The miners then cut It to pieces to wear on their coats."
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 62 Number 283
Friday, September 12, 1913, Page 1
      Charleston, W. V., Sept. 12. -- Alleging that the Paint Creek Collieries company failed in its promise to dismiss a doctor employed during the recent labor troubles, 500 miners around Mucklow struck today.
      Washington. D. C, Sept. 12. -- In support of their attempt to show an unlawful conspiracy between the United Mine Workers and coal operators in western Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois to stop the production of "cheap coal' in West Virginia, attorneys for the West Virginia operators today brought in the name of William B. Wilson, secretary of labor. In 1902 Wilson was national secretary of the United Mine Workers. D. C. Kennedy, now secretary of the Kanawha Coal association, testified that Wilson in that capacity at a miners' meeting in Huntington ordered a strike in West Virginia fields.
      "Wilson told us a strike was necessary to win the anthracite strike in Pennsylvania," testified Kennedy. He added that during the recent strike in Cabin and Paint creek the miners of West Virginia raised $6,000, while miners outside the state contributed $139,000.
      Questioned by Attorney Belcher, for the Mine Workers, Kennedy admitted he did not know a single operator in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana or Illinois who had contributed a single penny to organize West Virginia and also that mine owners in four other states fought the unionizing of West, Virginia.
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The Weekly Pantagraph, Bloomington, Illinois
Volume 67, Number 38
Friday Morning, September 19, 1913, Page 3
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      Washington, Sept 12. -- Coal mine operators of the Paint Creek and Cabin Creek, W. Va,, fields today concluded the presentation of evidence to the senate special committee, investigating the strike in their mines. Monday attorneys for the United Mine Workers will present rebuttal witnesses and the inquiry is expected to close soon thereafter.
      The last day's effort of the operators was to add more testimony on the point that the strike was caused by the United Mine Workers seeking to carry out their part of an unlawful agreement with operators of Western Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois to unionize the West Virginia mines.
Wilson's Name Brought In.
      In support of an attempt to show an unlawful conspiracy between the United Mine Workers and Coal operators of Western Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois fields to stop the production of "cheap coal" in West Virginia, attorneys for the West Virginia operators today brought in the name of William B Wilson, secretary of labor.
Wilson National Secretary
      In 1902, Wilson was national secretary of the United Mine Workers D. C. Kennedy, now secretary of the Kanawha Coal Association, testified that Wilson, in that capacity, at a miners' meeting in Huntington, ordered a strike in West Virginia fields
Said Strike Was Necessary
      "Mr. Wilson told us a strike was necessary in West Virginia to win the anthracite strike in Pennsylvania." testified Kennedy. He added that during the recent strike on Paint and Cabin Creeks, the miners in West Virginia raised $6,000, while miners outside the state contributed $139,000.
"Mother" Jones Well Paid.
      Kennedy testified that "Mother" Jones was paid $1,368 from June to November last year, according to the accounts of the mine workers.
      "Do you know of a single operator in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana or Illinois who has contributed a penny to organize West Virginia?" demanded Attorney Belcher, for the United Mine Workers.
      Kennedy admitted he did not and also that mine owners in four other states had fought unionizing West Virginia. The attorney read excepts from conference reports to bear that out.
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 82
Monday, January 5, 1914, page 3
      Washington, Jan. 5. -- That the military authorities in West Virginia, acting under the direction of the governor during the Cabin Creek and Paint Creek coal mine strike, super-ceded constitutional courts and imposed sentences not authorized by any standing law, is the declaration made in a report made public by Senator Borah, a member of the committee that conducted an investigation in West Virginia.
      The report is not formally endorsed by the full senate committee, but was given out as a statement of fact prepared by Senator Borah. The complete report has not yet been prepared.
      Senator Borah's statement briefly reviewed the establishing of martial law in the Cabin Creek and Paint Creek districts for nearly a year, and then declared that in the trial of individuals arrested upon orders issued by military authorities, and in assessing the punishments the court before which they were tried deemed itself bound alone by the orders of the commander-in-chief, the governor of the state, and in no respect bound to observe the constitution of the United States or the constitution or the statutes of the state of West Virginia relative to the trial and punishment of parties charged with crime.
      That a number of these parties were sent to jail and many to the state penitentiary under sentence from this court-martial as approved by the governor.
      That no threats of violence or use of force was made or had against the judges or the courts at any time during the existence of the disturbance or the reign of martial law, but that the officers of the County, after declaration of martial law, proceeded upon the assumption that the feeling and prejudice were so strong as to prevent the operation of the civil authorities, together with the further belief that the declaration of martial law had the effect of suspending and nullifying all constitutional and statutory rights of the accused.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 63 Number 77
Friday, January 16, 1914, page 1
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Senator Martine Makes Plea in Report on Strike in West Virginia
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The Day Book, Chicago, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 137 Edition 02
Tuesday, March 10, 1914, Page 12
      Washington, March, 10. Scorching arraignment of the West Virginia authorities for conditions in the Paint and Cabin Creek mining regions was contained in the final report of the Seriate investigating committee. State and civil authorities were censured for failure to check unlawful actions and for permitting military court martial to send men to the penitentiary while courts of the state were in session.
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